Number of Questions: 65
Total Marks: 100.0
Wrong answer will result in negative marks, (-1/3) for 1 mark Questions and (-2/3) for 2 marks Questions
1. Choose the most appropriate word from the options given below to complete the following sentence. The principal presented the chief guest with a ____________ as token of appreciation.
(A) moments (B) memento (C) momentum (D) moment
2. Choose the appropriate word/phrase, out of the four options given below, to complete the following sentence:
(A) croak (B) roar (C) hiss (D) patter
Answer : A
3. Choose the word most similar in meaning to the given word:
Answer : C
- Solve the following:
66□6 = 66-6/66+6 = 60/74
66◊6 = 66+6/66-6 = 74/60
Therefore, (66□6) →(66◊6) = ( 60/74)x(74/60) = 1
Answer : (C)
- If logx (5/7) = -1/3, then the value of x is
Hope you remember,
log102 = 2 , log103 = 3 , log104 = 4 and so on. [Actually, log10 (102 ) = 2 ]
So, logx (5/7) = -1/3
→ x-1/3 = 5/7
→ x1/3 = 7/5
→ (x1/3)3 = (7/5)3
→ x = (7/5)3 = 343/125
Answer : A
- The following question presents a sentence, part of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. Following the requirements of the standard written English, select the answer that produces the most effective sentence.
Tuberculosis, together with its effects, ranks one of the leading causes of death in India.
(A) ranks as axle of the leading causes of death
(B) rank as one of the leading causes of death
(C) has the rank of one of the leading causes of death
(D) are one of the leading causes of death
Answer : A
- Read the following paragraph and choose the correct statement.
Climate change has reduced human security and threatened human well being. An Ignored reality of human progress is that human security largely depends upon environmental security. But on the contrary, human progress seems contradictory to environmental security. To keep up both at the required level IS a challenge to be addressed by one and all. One of the ways to curb the climate change may be suitable scientific innovations, while the other may be the Gandhian perspective on small scale progress with focus on sustainability.
(A) Human progress and security are positively associated with environmental security.
(B) Human progress is contradictory to environmental security.
(C) Human security is contradictory to environmental security.
(D) Human progress depends upon environmental security.
Answer : B
|Figure: Part of Q.No. 8|
- Fill in the missing value:
|Figure: Solution of Q.No. 8|
Answer : 3
- A cube of side 3 units is formed using a set of smaller cubes of side 1 unit. Find the proportion of the number of faces of the smaller cubes visible to those which are NOT visible.
(A) 1:4 (B) 1:3 (C) 1:2 (D) 2:3
Notes: Let us take an example of a Rubik’s cube assuming each side of 3 units. A Rubik’s cube is made up of 27 small cubes assuming each side of 1 unit.
A cube has 9 faces. So total no. of faces in 27 cubes are 27×6=162. Out of which 6×9=54 are visible.
So NOT visible faces will be = 162-54= 108
Therefore, required ratio = 54/108= ½=1:2
|Figure: Rubik’s Cube [Support illustration for answer to Q.No.9]|
Answer : C
- Humpty Dumpty sits on a wall every day while having lunch. The wall sometimes breaks. A person sitting on the wall falls if the wall breaks.
(A) Humpty Dumpty always falls while having lunch.
(B) Humpty Dumpty does not fall sometimes while having lunch.
(C) Humpty Dumpty never falls during dinner.
(D)When Humpty Dumpty does not sit on the wall, the wall does not break.
Answer : B
- A Housing Finance Institution in the private sector is:
(A) HUDCO (B) SBI (C) PNB (D) HDFC
Notes: HUDCO: The Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO) is a government-owned corporation in India. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. It is mandated with building affordable housing and carrying out urban development. HUDCO lays an emphasis on the housing needs of the ‘deprived’ i.e Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and Lower Income Groups (LIG). It was incorporated on April 25, 1970. It has worked with architects such as B. V. Doshi, Charles Correa, Christopher Charles Benninger etc.
HDFC: Housing Development Finance Corporation, a premier housing finance company set up in 1977. Later it was more involved in banking sector. HDFC Bank Ltd was incorporated on August 30, 1994 by Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd. In the year 1994, Housing Development Finance Corporation Ltd was amongst the first to receive an ‘in principle’ approval from the Reserve Bank of India to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI’s liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995.
Answer : D
- Which of the following statements regarding PERT is NOT true?
(A)Each activity of PERT network has three different time estimates.
(B) Expected activity time is estimated based on β-distribution.
(C) PERT is a deterministic model.
(D) PERT network may have more than one critical path.
Answer : C
PERT: A project management tool that provides a graphical representation of a project’s timeline. Program or Project Evaluation Review Technique, was developed by the United States Navy for the Polaris submarine missile program in the 1950s. PERT charts allow the tasks in a particular project to be analyzed, with particular attention to the time required to complete each task, and the minimum time required to finish the entire project.
PERT event: a point that marks the start or completion of one or more activities. It consumes no time and uses no resources. When it marks the completion of one or more activities, it is not “reached” (does not occur) until all of the activities leading to that event have been completed.
- predecessor event: an event that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. An event can have multiple predecessor events and can be the predecessor of multiple events.
- successor event: an event that immediately follows some other event without any other intervening events. An event can have multiple successor events and can be the successor of multiple events.
- PERT activity: the actual performance of a task which consumes time and requires resources (such as labor, materials, space, machinery). It can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be performed until the predecessor event has occurred.
- optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected
- pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes).
- most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal.
- expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, accounting for the fact that things don’t always proceed as normal (the implication being that the expected time is the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions over an extended period of time).
- TE= (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6
- float or slack is a measure of the excess time and resources available to complete a task. It is the amount of time that a project task can be delayed without causing a delay in any subsequent tasks (free float) or the whole project (total float). Positive slack would indicate ahead of schedule; negative slack would indicate behind schedule; and zero slack would indicate on schedule.
- critical path: the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. It determines the total calendar time required for the project; and, therefore, any time delays along the critical path will delay the reaching of the terminal event by at least the same amount.
- critical activity: An activity that has total float equal to zero. An activity with zero float is not necessarily on the critical path since its path may not be the longest.
- Lead time: the time by which a predecessor event must be completed in order to allow sufficient time for the activities that must elapse before a specific PERT event reaches completion.
Figure: Damage due to liquefaction of soil.
lag time: the earliest time by which a successor event can follow a specific PERT event.
- fast tracking: performing more critical activities in parallel
- crashing critical path: Shortening duration of critical activities.
- Damage of foundation due to ‘Soil Liquefaction’ is related to:
Notes: Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soilsubstantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.
|Figure: Another example of liquefaction of soil.|
Liquefaction occurs in saturated soils, that is, soils in which the space between individual particles is completely filled with water. This water exerts a pressure on the soil particles that influences how tightly the particles themselves are pressed together. Prior to an earthquake, the water pressure is relatively low. However, earthquake shaking can cause the water pressure to increase to the point where the soil particles can readily move with respect to each other.
Earthquake shaking often triggers this increase in water pressure, but construction related activities such as blasting can also cause an increase in water pressure.
Earthquake shaking often triggers this increase in water pressure, but construction related activities such as blasting can also cause an increase in water pressure.
Answer : D
- Walls with high thermal inertia are suitable in which type of climate?
(A) Hot-Dry (B) Hot-humid (C) Temperate (D) Cold
Notes: Thermal inertia, represents the capacity of a material to store heat. Altenatively, the ability of materials to store heat and give it off slowly. A construction with high thermal inertia can provide better comfort for less money comparing to one with low thermal inertia.
- The ratio of town area to agricultural land area as suggested by Sir Ebenezer Howard in ‘Garden City’
(A) 1:20 (B) 1:15 (C) 1:10 (D) 1:5
Answer : D
Notes: Garden city, the ideal of a planned residential community, as devised by the English town planner Ebenezer Howard and promoted by him in Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Social Reform (1898). Howard’s plan for garden cities was a response to the need for improvement in the quality of urban life, which had become marred by overcrowding and congestion due to uncontrolled growth since the Industrial Revolution.
Howard’s solution to the related problems of rural depopulation and the runaway growth of great towns and cities was the creation of a series of small, planned cities that would combine the amenities of urban life with the ready access to nature typical of rural environments. The main features of Howard’s scheme were: (1) the purchase of a large area of agricultural land within a ring fence; (2) the planning of a compact town surrounded by a wide rural belt; (3) the accommodation of residents, industry, and agriculture within the town; (4) the limitation of the extent of the town and prevention of encroachment upon the rural belt; and (5) the natural rise in land values to be used for the town’s own general welfare.
- A ‘Demolition Contract’ for a building is awarded to the
(A) Lowest Bidder (B) Highest Bidder (C) Second Lowest Bidder (D) Second Highest Bidder
Answer : B
- Bulking of sand is highest in
(A) Coarse Sand
(B) Medium Sand
(C) Fine Sand
(D) Sand saturated with water
Note: Bulking of sand means increase in it’s volume due to presence of surface moisture . The volume increases with increase in moisture content . The volume may increase up to 20 to 40% when moisture content is 5 to 10 %.
Due to moisture in each particle of sand, sand gets a coating of water due to surface tension which keeps the particles apart. This causes an increment in volume of sand known as Bulking.
Answer : C
- The Venice Charter (1964) led to the establishment of
(A) International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration (ICCROM)
(B) International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
(C) Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH)
(D) Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
Notes: The Venice Charter codifies internationally accepted standards of conservation practice relating to architecture and sites. It sets forth principles of conservation based on the concept of authenticity and the importance of maintaining the historical and physical context of a site or building. The Venice Charter continues to be the most influential international conservation document. The Venice Charter states that monuments are to be conserved not only as works of art but also as historical evidence. It also sets down the principles of preservation, which relate to restoration of buildings with work from different periods.
The development of new conservation and restoration techniques have threatened the historic buildings in general sense. The International Museum Office organized a meeting of specialists about the conservation of historic buildings in 1931. The conference resulted with the Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments which was consisting of a manifesto with seven points. These seven points were:
- to establish organizations for restoration advice
- to ensure projects are reviewed with knowledgeable criticism
- to establish national legislation to preserve historic sites
- to rebury excavations which were not to be restored.
- to allow the use of modern techniques and materials in restoration work.
- to place historical sites under custodial protection.
- to protect the area surrounding historic sites.
Basically the idea of common world heritage, the importance of the setting of monuments and the principle of integration of new materials were highlighted. Athens Charter had very progressive suggestions for its period along with its visible influence on the Venice Charter as well as creation of conservation institutions.
First International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings
With the concern that listing and safeguarding historic buildings was not enough, in 1957 architectural specialists arranged a congress by themselves in Paris which was called The First International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings. As conclusion, the congress published seven recommendations which were:
- the countries which still lack a central organization for the protection of historic buildings provide for the establishment of such an authority,
- the creation of an international assembly of architects and specialists of historic buildings should be considered,
- a specialized professional training of all categories of personnel should be promoted so as to secure highly qualified workmanship and that remuneration should be commensurate with such qualifications,
- the hygrometric problems relating to historic buildings should be discussed in a symposium,
- contemporary artists should be requested to contribute to the decoration of monuments,
- close cooperation should be established among architects and archeologists,
- architects and town-planners cooperate so as to secure integration of historic buildings into town planning.
As the last decision, The Congress agreed to have the second meeting in Venice and Mr. Piero Gazzola, who served as the chairman of the Venice Charter, was invited to hold the Venice Congress.
Second International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings
In The Second International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings, 13 resolutions were adopted of which the first was the Venice Charter and the second was creation of ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites).
The charter consisted of seven main titles and sixteen articles. The concept of historic monuments and sites was interpreted as the common heritage therefore safeguarding them for the future generations with full of richness and authenticity was defined as the common responsibility.
Answer : B
- The ratio between illumination at a working point indoor to total light available simultaneously outdoor is known as
(A) Daylight Factor
(B) Sky Component
(C) Internally Reflected Component
(D) Externally Reflected Component
Notes: A daylight factor is the ratio of internal light level to external light level and is defined as follows: DF = (Ei / Eo) x 100% where, Ei = illuminance due todaylight at a point on the indoors working plane, Eo = simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane from an unobstructed hemisphere of overcast sky.
A simple rule of thumb can also be used to approximate the daylight factor:
D = 0.1 x P
where: D = Daylight factor
P = Percentage glazing to floor area
e.g. given a room of 100 m2 floor area with 20 m2 of glazing
D = 0.1 x ( 20 ÷ 100 ) x ( 100 ÷ 1 ) = 2%
This can be more usefully represented in calculation of the natural illuminance at the reference point inside a building by applying the following formula
D = (Ei ÷ Eo) x 101)
where: D = Daylight factor
Ei = Illuminance at reference point in building
Eo = Illuminance at the reference point if the room was unobstructed
Both factors of E are measured in lux (lumens per square metre), with Eo taken as a standard 5000 lux for unobstructed sky in the UK. So transposing formula to make Ei the subject
Ei = ( D x Eo ) ÷ 100
Ei = ( 2 x 5000 ) ÷ 100 = 100 lux
Day light reading at a reference point in a room can be made up of three components:
- sky component, or the light received directly from the sky
- externally reflected component, which is the light received after reflection from the ground, building or other external surface
- and internally reflected component, which is the light received after being reflected from the surfaces inside a building
|Figure: Sky light components.|
The design of a building must take into account these three factors if the ‘correct’ amount of daylight is an essential factor in its function and if the design and construction method are closely related.
For convenience, the daylight within an interior is quoted as a fraction of the outdoor illuminance or ‘Daylight Factor’. Naturally the factor will vary at different positions within the room, but at any one point the ratio should remain fairly constant so that the indoor natural light will change in proportion to variations in the outdoor illuminance.
The daylight factor is the amount of daylight reaching a point or a surface and it is split into three components.
- The Sky Component (SC), this is the light reaching the point directly from the sky.
- The Externally Reflected Component (ERC), this is the light that reaches the point after being reflected from surfaces outside the room such as buildings or roads.
- The Internally Reflected Component (IRC), this is the amount of light that reaches the point after being reflected from other surfaces in the room.
The arithmetic sum of these three components gives the daylight factor thus:
DF = SC + ERC + IRC
The figure gives a diagrammatical representation of this.
Externally Reflected Component (ERC)
If the ray passes through an aperture and then strikes an external object, it contributes to the Externally Reflected Component and is modified by:
- the illuminance of the sky it would have hit,
- the external reflectance of the material assigned to the struck external object, and
- the relative surface angle and glazing transmittances.
Internally Reflected Component (IRC)
|Figure: Intersection, Rotary.|
If a ray hits an opaque object before passing through an aperture, then it contributes to the Internally Reflected Component. In this case the internal surface reflectance of the object is stored and the altitude angle of the ray is then used to determine which parts of the IRC formula it contributes to.
Answer : A
- Which of the following vehicular traffic intersections converts all crossing into merging and diverging sequences?
(B) Manual Signaling
(C) Grade Separation
(D) Automatic Signaling
- The process of spraying Polyester, Polyurethane, Acrylic and Epoxy Plastic, followed by heat curing onto metals is called
(C) Vitreous Enameling
(D) Powder Coating
Notes: Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized.
Galvanization, or galvanisation, is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting. Galvanizing protects in two ways:
- it forms a coating of corrosion-resistant zinc which prevents corrosive substances from reaching the more delicate part of the metal
- the zinc serves as a sacrificial anode so that even if the coating is scratched, the exposed steel will still be protected by the remaining zinc.
Vitreous enamel also known as porcelain enamel, is a type of glass coating. It is typically bonded to a metal or another enamel, then fired at around 850 degrees Fahrenheit (454 Celsius). Coating metal with vitreous enamel can prevent it from corroding, add a decorative flair and make it easier to clean. The inorganic coating provides resistance to abrasion and wear, making it a practical technology for cooking utensils and cookware, as well as jewelry and decorative accessories.
A powdery mixture, typically made of borax, quartz and feldspar, makes up a ground coat. A cover coat consisting of titanium dioxide, quartz and dehydrated borax completes the enamel powder. The powder is applied to a substrate, or, the material being used. Common substrates are metal, ceramic and glass.
The powdered glass is fused to the chosen material by firing, which melts the powder and coats the substrate. Vitreous enamel turns out smooth, durable and hard as glass. After firing, the powdered mixture can result in a transparent or opaque coating or in brilliant colors. Sometimes, a translucent quality is achieved.
Enameling was used by ancient Egyptians, who chose pottery and stone as substrates. Ancient Greeks and Chinese, Russian and Celtic artists used metal substrates. The Romans decorated glass vessels using enameling techniques.
Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. The main difference between a conventional liquid paint and a powder coating is that the powder coating does not require a solvent to keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid suspension form. The coating is typically applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form a “skin”. The powder may be a thermoplastic or a thermosetpolymer. It is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint. Powder coating is mainly used for coating of metals, such ashousehold appliances, aluminium extrusions, drum hardware, and automobile and bicycle parts. Newer technologies allow other materials, such as MDF (medium-density fibreboard), to be powder coated using different methods.
Answer : D
- The fundamental right pertaining to property ownership in India DOES NOT embrace:
(A) Sell.. Lease, Donate or Bequeath
(C) Grant Easement
(D) Change in use
Answer : D
- Match the Elements in Group-I with their Applications in Group-II
|Figure: The Bracket.|
(A) P-2, Q-5, R-3, S-1
(B) P-3, Q-5, R-4, S-1
(C) P-3, Q-1, R-4, S-5
|Figure: The Keystone.|
(D) P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-4
Answer : B
- Match the Buildings in Group-I with their Principal Architect in Group-II
|Figure: Wexner Centre for the Visual Arts, Ohio .|
P -Wexner Centre for the Visual Arts, Ohio
Q -Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany
R – AT&T Buiding, New York
S – Sher-e-Banglanagar, Dacca
(A) P-2, Q-4, R-5, S-3
(B) P-3, Q-5, R-4, S-1
(C) P-1, Q-2, R-5, S-3
(D) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-5
Wexner Centre for the Visual Arts, Ohio
Before it was even completed, New York Times critic Paul Goldberger dubbed the Wexner Center for the Arts “The Museum That Theory Built.” Given its architect, this epithet came as no surprise; Peter Eisenman, the museum’s designer, had spent the better part of his career distilling architectural form down to a theoretical science. It was with tremendous anticipation that this building, the first major public work of Eisenman’s career, opened in 1989. For some, it heralded a validation of deconstructivism and theory, while its problems provided ammunition for others who saw theory and practice as complimentary but ultimately divergent pursuits. The building’s popular reception has been equally mixed, but its influence and intrigue in the academic community is as pronounced and unmistakeable as the design itself.
Figure: Different parts of the building. Wexner Centre for the Visual Arts, Ohio .
Located on the eastern edge of The Ohio State University’s campus, the Wexner Center was built to accommodate a multidisciplinary space for the exploration and exhibition of contemporary art. His widely respected name alone carried the museum’s opening, which didn’t even feature artwork so as to not distract from the architecture.
|Figure: Gallery, Wexner Centre for the Visual Arts, Ohio .|
In its concept and process, the Wexner Center is an exemplary illustration of Eisenman’s unique approach to architecture. While not entirely disconnected from its context, the building is for the most part a self-realizing and autonomous work, creating its own unique and self-contained methodological process and architectural vocabulary. The museum purports to make no apologies for its unorthodoxies; quasi-historical quotations reference architectural tradition only to boldly reject it. Formal devices deprived of functionalist purpose disavow spatial convention. And a number of deliberately awkward and discordant moments complicate the intersection of built space with its human occupation. For Eisenman, these are among the great successes of the building, as they manifest the discourse of deconstructivist emancipation into actualized form.
As in much of Eisenman’s work, strong grid systems dominate the formal language of the building. The urban grids of the city of Columbus and of the university, slightly off-kilter from one another, overlap within the project. The 12.5 degrees of variation between two result in an axial rotation within the museum, with corresponding tectonic elements creating jarring moments of intersection as the two systems compete for primacy. The collages Eisenman prepared to visually describe the project illustrate the tension of the competing grids and revel in an interstitial ambiguity that finds imitation in the actual building. As a marketing pitch, all of this amounts to a clever interplay of campus with community, but as an architectural strategy, it creates a formal trope from which the various systems of the building are able to emerge.
Running through the core of the building is the Wexner Center’s most recognizable feature: a 540-foot long “scaffolding” structure that extrudes the planar grid systems into a three-dimensional matrix. Exposed and partially unenclosed, it is meant to look deliberately incomplete, repudiating preconceptions of solid and void as fixed properties of architecture. While this seam in the building functions as an axis of circulation, it plays a more important spatial role by delineating and projecting organization throughout the site. The resulting interrelationships find expression in the contours of the surrounding structures and landscaping, strikingly recalling the diagrammatic constructions of the contemporaneousGetty Center in Los Angeles by Eisenman’s geometry-driven cousin, Richard Meier.
Also prominent on the museum are a set of red brick turrets that dramatically clash with the hyper-modern aesthetic of the scaffolding. They are allusions to a medieval-style armory that was bulldozed to make room for the museum, an eerie tribute to construction’s destructive side. More meaningfully for the architecture, they are fragmented elements of historicity, split and carved apart in a way that renounces the importance of precedent far more than honors it. They are one part of the complex amalgam of elements and quotations that give the building every bit of the collage-like feeling reflected in Eisenman’s trademark drawings.
After the museum’s completion, the building was plagued with a series of construction and design issues that tarnished its public image. Unfortunately for deconstructivists everywhere, these flaws appeared to be the result of an ambitious design with an intentional disregard for the practical considerations of traditional architects—a foundational axiom of the doctrine. In 2003, the building underwent an invasive, three-year renovation, only fourteen years after its christening. As it approaches its twenty-fifth anniversary next month, it seems that most of these issues have been overcome. History, however, should continue to remember them in the context of this great museum as a testament to the price of translation between theory and actualization.
|Figure: Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany.|
Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany
|Figure: Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany.|
Unquestionably the most successful design by Zaha Hadid so far, winning her a Pritzker Prize, the Vitra Fire Station in Weil Am Rhein is a dynamic deconstruction of mankind’s most fascinating phenomenon: fire.
Weil Am Rhein is one of those unknown, special little town on the Germany, France, Swiss border. It had already boasted works from great architects like Frank Gehry.
Vitra, a Swiss furniture design company, is also known for hiring popular architects, such as Tadao Ando.
The design conveys an urgency that is associated with fire stations, with fleeting shapes that break away and interior facades that permit light as horizontal beams of speed. The arrow pointed concrete peace is held up precariously from what seems like the skeletal structure of a burnt out building. The concrete form seems impervious to the dynamic change of fire, yet something has obviously moved it and deconstructed it.
Built in 1993, this took the fire station as it was, a home away from home and efficient utilitarian station, and uncovered the true human meaning.
After a devastating fire in 1981 that crippled the Vitra design campus in Weil am Rhein, Germany, Vitra began an extensive mission to rebuild the campus as well as redesign the masterplan, which was designed by Nicholas Grimshaw. Almost a decade after the devastating fire in 1981, the company sought an architect to build a fire station for the Vitracampus to thwart any future reoccurrences and commissioned Zaha Hadid. Completed in 1993, the Vitra fire station would be Hadid’s first realized project of her career, which would eventually launch her name and style to an international audience.
The Vitra fire station is Hadid’s showcased work that delves into the deconstructivist theoretical language that she developed through her paintings as a conceptual mediator of finding spatial relationships and form. The Vitra fire station is a synthesis of philosophy and architecture that bridges the Vitra design campus to its surrounding context.
More on the Vitra Fire Station after the break.
As part of the initial design process, Hadid and her associate Patrik Schumacher began relating the existing buildings on the campus to the surrounding agricultural context. The long road where the fire station would be located was envisioned as a linear landscape as if it were an artificial extension of the adjacent fields and vineyards. The fire station was understood to be the linkage that would define the edge between the surrounding landscape and the artificiality of the campus. By implementing a narrow profile to the building, it can be perceived as an extension, or extrusion, of the landscape that conceptually runs through the building.
|Figure: Different side,Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany.|
The fire station is a composition of concrete planes that bend, tilt, and break according to the conceptual dynamic forces that are connecting landscape and architecture. The building is thought to be frozen in motion, heightening the dynamism of the forces used to create the formal aesthetic that is suspended in a state of tension creating a sense of instability. Concrete “shards” and planes slide past one another creating a narrow, horizontal profile. The sense of instability is intensified as horizontal planes slip over one another, while another projects out over the garage bay. Always in a state of constant uneasiness, theconcrete planes embody a heavy, opaque quality that restricts views into the building except for when the walls begin to split from the building.
|Figure: Inside view, Vitra Fire station, Weilam Rhein, Germany.|
The interior of the fire station is just as complex formally and spatially as the exterior of the building. The series of layered walls are bent, tilted, and broken to accommodate for the functionality of the program that is sandwiched in between the walls. The second floor is slightly off balance with the ground floor, which creates a sense of spatial instability within. As the planes slide past one another and begin to manipulate according to program, visitors are subject to optical illusions that the angles and glimpses of color begin to create within.
Inside and out the Vitra fire station is a series of complex spatial arrangements that evoke a sense of illusive instability while still retaining some semblance of stability and structure. Yet all the while exhibiting simple, clean lines that converge together to create a compositional complexity throughout the station.
Today, the fire house has been converted into a museum that showcases Vitra’s chair designs after the fire district lines had been redrawn.
Answer : A
- A combination of colours forming an equilateral triangle in a Colour Wheel is called
(A) Analogous Scheme
(B) Triad Scheme
(C) Split Complementary Scheme
(D)Double Complementary Scheme
Below are shown the basic color chords based on the color wheel.
Colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel are considered to be complementary colors (example: red and green).The high contrast of complementary colors creates a vibrant look especially when used at full saturation. This color scheme must be managed well so it is not jarring.Complementary colors are tricky to use in large doses, but work well when you want something to stand out.Complementary colors are really bad for text.
Analogous color schemes use colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. They usually match well and create serene and comfortable designs.Analogous color schemes are often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye.Make sure you have enough contrast when choosing an analogous color scheme.Choose one color to dominate, a second to support. The third color is used (along with black, white or gray) as an accent.
A triadic color scheme uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel.Triadic color harmonies tend to be quite vibrant, even if you use pale or unsaturated versions of your hues.To use a triadic harmony successfully, the colors should be carefully balanced – let one color dominate and use the two others for accent.
The split-complementary color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. In addition to the base color, it uses the two colors adjacent to its complement.This color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme, but has less tension.The split-complimentary color scheme is often a good choice for beginners, because it is difficult to mess up.
The rectangle or tetradic color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs.This rich color scheme offers plenty of possibilities for variation.The tetradic color scheme works best if you let one color be dominant.You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design.
The square color scheme is similar to the rectangle, but with all four colors spaced evenly around the color circle.The square color scheme works best if you let one color be dominant.You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design.
Answer : B
- Desire Line diagram helps in
(A) completion of a project by a desired date
(B) meeting demand and supply in desired category of housing
(C) determining income versus expenditure pattern of individuals
(D) Origin-Destination analysis in transport planning
Origin‐destination (O‐D) surveys provide a detailed picture of the trip patterns and travel choices of a city’s or region’s residents.
These surveys collect valuable data related to households, individuals and trips. This information allows stakeholders to understand :
>Travel patterns and characteristics
>Provide input to travel demand model development
>Forecasting, and planning for area‐wide transportation needs and services
>Progress in implementing transportation policies.
In a transportation study, it is often necessary to know the exact origin and destination of the trips. It is not only necessary to know how many trips are made, but also group these trips with reference to the zones of their origin and destination.
Other information yielded by the O-D survey includes :
>Land-use of the zones of origin & destination.
>Household characteristics of the trip-making family.
>Time of the day when journeys are made.
>Mode of travel.
The following are some of the techniques available for conducting an O-D survey :
>Home interview survey
>Road-side interview survey
>Post-card questionnaire survey
>Registration number plate survey
>Tags on vehicles
Answer : D
- As per Fire Safety norms of NBC India for buildings having assembly and institutional occupancies, the maximum travel distance in meters to an exit from the dead end of a corridor is
- Which of the following is a part of a studio apartment?
(A) Master bed room
(B) Artist’s room
(C) Multipurpose space
(D) Children’s room
A “studio” apartment refers to a living space where the sleeping area and living area are combined into one central room. There are no other major rooms. If a studio has a kitchen, it is a part of the central room, while sometimes separated by a counter. Some studio apartments have no proper kitchen at all, in which case the tenant usually has access to a common kitchen. Many studio apartments have their own private bathroom, which is usually set off in its own small room. Some share a common bathroom with other studios.
- The saturation level of a colour represents
Notes: Color saturation refers to how vivid and intense a color is. For example, a display with poor color saturation will look washed out or faded. When a color’s saturation level is reduced to 0, it becomes a shade of gray.
Answer : B
|Figure: Invert level of pipe.|
- Invert level of a pipe at a given cross section refers to the
(A) highest point of the internal surface
(B) lowest point of the internal surface
(C) highest point of the external surface
(D) lowest pot of the external surface
Notes: Invert level of a pipe is the level taken from the bottom of the inside pipe as shown below.
The level at the crown of the pipe is the Invert level plus the internal diameter of the pipe plus the pipe wall thickness. It may necessary to use in calculations when measurements are taken from the crown of a pipe.
Answer : B
- The command DVIEW in AutoCAD permits to view
(A) a selected portion of the drawings in detail
(B) the entire screen on the monitor
(C) a perspective of the drawing
(D) a damaged part of the drawing
Answer : C
- Match the Land use categories of Group-I with their respective Colour codes in Group_II as per practice in India
|P Residential||1 Red|
|Q Commercial||2 Grey|
|R Industrial||3 Blue|
|S Public/Semi-public||4 Violet|
(A) P – 5, Q -3 , R – 4 , S – 1
(B) P – 5, Q- 4, R – 2 , S – 1
(C) P -1, Q- 2, R – 4, S- 5
(D) P-1, Q -3, R- 2, S- 4
Answer : A
|Figure: Derivation of Shear Force.|
- A rectangular beam section of size 300 mm (Width) X 500 mm (depth) is loaded with a shear force of 600 kN. The maximum shear stress on the section in N/mm2 is_____________
Notes: Maximum shear stress in a beam section = 3/2(F/A) .
F = shear Force & A = cross-sectional Area
So, Maximum shear
Answer : 6
- In a 50 meter section of a waste water pipe. if the gradient is 1 in 80, then the fall in millimeter is
1:80 => for 80m , fall is 1m
So, for 1m, fall will be 1/80m
So, for 50m, fall will be 1/80×50 = 0.625m = 625mm
Answer : 625
- A 15 meter long and 3 meter wide driveway needs to be paved with 300 mm X 300 mm square Tiles. If each packet contains 30 numbers of tiles, then the number of packets to be procured to pave the whole area is__________________
Notes: Area covered by each tile is 300mmx300mm = 0.3mx0.3m = 0.09sqm
As each packet contains 30 numbers of tiles, area covered by each packet = 0.09×30 = 2.7sqm
Total area o the roadways = 15mx3m = 45sqm
So, no. of required packets= 45sqm/2.7sqm = 16.67 = 17 packets
Answer : 16.5 to 17.0
- Match the Monuments in Group-I with their Features in Group-II
|P Panch Mahal Fathepur, Sikri||1 Painted Stone Figures|
|Q Meenakshi Temple, Madurai||2 Intricate Red Sand Stone Carvings|
|R Jor-Bangla Temple, Bishnupur||3 Granite Statues|
|S Sun Temple, Konark||4 Khondalite Stone Work|
|5. Terracotta Carvings|
(A) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3
(B) P-2, Q-1, R-5, S-4
(C) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-3
(D) P-1, Q-5, R-5, S-4
|Figure: Panch Mahal.|
Panch Mahal is a five-story palace in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Panch Mahal, also known as “Badgir” meaning wind catcher tower, was commissioned by Akbar the Great. This structure stands close to the Zenana quarters (Harem) which supports the supposition that it used for entertainment and relaxation. This is an extraordinary structure employing the design elements of a Buddhist Temple; entirely columnar, consisting of four stories of decreasing size arranged asymmetrically upon the ground floor, which contains 84 columns. These columns, that originally had jaali (screens) between them, support the whole structure. Once these screens provided purdah (cover) to queens and princess on the top terraces enjoying the cool breezes and watching splendid views of Sikri fortifications and the town nestling at the foot of the ridge.
The pavilion gives a majestic view of the fort that lies on its left. The pool in front of the Panch Mahal is called the Anoop Talao. It would have been filled with water, save for the bridge, and would have been the setting for musical concerts and other entertainment. The ground floor has 84 columns, the first story has 56 columns and the second and third stories have 20 and 12 columns respectively. The topmost story has 4 columns supporting a chhattri. There are 176 columns in all and each is elegantly carved with no two alike.
|Figure: Hall of Pillars, Meenakshi Temple, Madurai.|
Meenakshi Sundareswarar temple (twin temples, Dravidian architecture) is one of the biggest temples in India. The original temple built by Kulasekara Pandyan was in ruins. The plan for the current temple structure was laid by Viswanath Naik and was completed by Tirumalai Nayakar. The Aadi, Chittirai and the Maasi, and Veli streets surround the temple. Both temples are adorned with exquisite carvings & sculptures and gold plated vimanams.
There are 12 massive gopurams in the temple, the four tallest gopurams at the outer walls (The tallest is the southern gopuram, measuring 49 metres). There are four entrances. The main entrance is to the Meenakshi Amman shrine.
Ashta Shakthi Mandapam is reached from the eastern gateway. It was built by Thirumalai Nayakar’s wives Rudrapathi Ammal and Tholimamai. The scenes from the Thiruvilayadals of the Lord and from Meenakshi Amman’s life as a princess are depicted on the pillars of this mandapam.
The golden lotus pond (Potraamarai Kulam) is located to the left of the Meenakshi shrine. The Tamil Sangam used to value the literary works by placing them in the waters of this tank. Only those works which rose back to the surface were accepted as great masterpieces. Tiruvalluvar’s Tirukkural was accepted at this pond.
On the western side of this tank are the Oonjal Mandapam with the deities and the Kilikootu Mandapam (hall of parrots), with parrots chanting the name of Meenakshi. Every Friday the gold idols of the Lord & Meenakshi are placed on the Oonjal (swing ) & worshipped with hymns & offerings.
|Figure: Stucco work, Meenakshi Temple, Madurai.|
Sundareswarar gives darshan in the form of a linga, supported by 64 bhootaganas, 32 lions and 8 elephants. He is also known by other names such as Chokkanathar, Karpurachokkar. The stump of the Kadamba tree under which Indra worshipped the Lord can be seen in the outer corridor.
The Kampathadi Mandapam and Velli Ambalam are situated in the outer corridor. The scenes from the wedding cermeony of Sundareswarar & Meenakshi are depicted in the pillars of this hall. This place is one of the 5 (Pancha Sabhais) sabhas of Nataraja where Siva dances. (The other dance halls are Chidambaram, Tiruvaalankadu, Tirunelveli and Kutralam). There is a unique idol of Nataraja dancing with his right leg raised to the shoulder instead of the left. The Lord is considered to have danced thus, at the request of King Rajasekara Pandyan. Since the idol of Nataraja is covered with silver leaves, it is called Velli (silver) Ambalam.
Legends from the Tiruvilayaadal Puraanam are depicted on the walls of the temple. The idols of Saraswathi, Durgai, Siddhar, Lakshmi, Kasi Viswanathar, Lingodhbava murti, Nayanmars can be worshipped in the outer prakara. The holy Kadamba tree is also preserved & worshipped.
The thousand pillared hall is an architectural & engineering marvel, built in the 16th century. The pillars have the Yazhi figure sculpted on them. There are musical granite pillars just outside this mandapam, which when struck yield different musical notes. On the east is the Vasantha Mandapam or the Pudhu Mandapam. Scenes of the wedding & life-size figures of the Nayak rulers can be seen here.
|Figure: Jor-Bangla Temple, Bishnupur.|
The Jor Bangla, also known as Keshta Raya temple, was built in 1655 by King Raghunath Singha. The two hut-shaped structures are joined together and surmounted by a charchala shikara on the top. This is another temple with exquisite terracotta ornamentation.
Temple style in Bishnupur
Bishnupur, located in south western West Bengal in the district of Bankura, is renowned for its terracotta temples. Bishnupur was once the capital of the regional Mallabhum kingdom. The temples are adorned with elaborate carvings giving an insight into the terracotta art of Bengal. Three main architectural styles of temples can be found in Bishnupur, namely the deul, chala and ratna styles. Deul style is characterized by a single tower whereas ratna style temples usually have more than one towers.
The Sun Temple of Konark marks the highest point of achievement of Kalinga architecture depicting the grace , the joy and the rhythm of life all it’s wondrous variety. There is an endless wealth of decoration from minute pattterns in bas-relief done with a jeweller’s precision to boldly modelled free standing sculptures of exceptionally large size. Under the crackling wheels of past events , the Sun Temple has lost its main sanctuary but the remaining structure and the ruins arouns testify till today the boundless creative energy of Orissan artistes and their impresive contribution to the treasury of Indian Art and building technique. Standing majestically on the sandy coast of the Bay of Bengal, the porch, in its solitary grandeur is an eloquent testimony of a gracious and mysterious past. Dedicated to Sun God, this temple was constructed by Raja Narasinghs Deva-I of the Ganga Dynasty was dazzling supreme in the political firmament of India.
Fame of The Sun Temple
That the fame of the this temple as a wonderful monument has spread far beyond the limits of Orissa in the sixteen century is amply borne out not only by the great Vaishnava Saint Chaitanya’s (AD-1486-1533) visit to the place but also by the following pithy description which appeared in the A’in-i-Akbari of Abu’l-Fazl, the famous chronicler of the court of Akbar (AD-1556-1605)
|Figure: Konark Wheel, The Sun Temple of Konark.|
Architectural Glory of the Sun Temple
The Sun Templ e built in the thirteenth century was conveived as a gigantic chariot of Sun God, with twelve pairs of exquisitely ornamented wheels pulled by seven pairs of horses. Majestic in conception, this Temple is indeed one of the most sublime monuments of India, famous as much for its imposing dimensions and faultless proportions as for the harmonious integration of of architectural grandeur with plastic allegiance. It is admittedly the best in Orissa. Its fine traceries and scroll work , the beautiful and natural cut of animal and human figures, all give it a superiority over other temples. The chief quality is its design and architectural details. The Sun temple belongs to the Kalinga School of Indian Temples with characteristic curvilinear towers mounted by Cupolas. In shape, the Temple did not make any major departure from other sikhara temples of Orissa. The main sanctum which (229 ft. high) was constructed alongwith the audience hall (128 ft. high) having elaborate external projections. The main sanctum which enshrined the presiding deity has fallen off. The Audience Hall survives in its entirely but of the other two viz the Dancing Hall(nata Mandir) and the Dining Hall (Bhoga-Mandap), only small portions have survived the vagaries of time. The Temple compound measures 857 ft. by 540 ft.
The alignment of the Sun Temple is on the east-west direction. The Temple is located in natural surroundings, abounding with casuarina plantations and other types of trees, wchich grow on sandy soil. The environment is by and large unspoiled. Gentle undulating topography around the Sun Temple lends some variation to the landscape.
|Figure: The Pisa Cathedral, Italy|
- Match the monuments in Group-I with their Features in Group-II
P Pisa Cathedral, Italy
Q St. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
R Great Temple of Aman, Karnak
S Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris
(A) P- 5 , Q – 1, R – 3, S – 2
(B) P- 2, Q-4, R-3, S- 5
(C) P – 4 , Q – 2 , R – 5 , S-1
(D) P – 5, Q – 4 , R- 3 , S-1
Pisa Cathedral, Italy a medieval cathedral, entitled to Santa Maria Assunta (St. Mary of the Assumption). Construction began in 1063 by the architect Buscheto to celebrate breaking the Saracen fleet off Palermo in 1063. The work was carried over to the architect of the 12th century, Rainaldo. The dome was completed in the 14th century.
The Cathedral is Latin cross-shaped when it’s viewed from above. 95m in lenght, 32m in width, it is called Pisan Romanesque masterpiece.
Interior is divided into five naves by densely lined 68 cylinders. It’s said that many of those cylinders were taken as booty from the ancient ruins of Palermo. The mosaics of the interior show a strong Byzantine influence, while the pointed arches point to Muslim influences.
Hagia Sophia is a great architectural beauty and an important monument both for Byzantine and for Ottoman Empires. Once a church, later a mosque, and now a museum at the Turkish Republic, Hagia Sophia has always been the precious of its time. The Hagia Sophia, whose name means “holy wisdom,” is a domed monument originally built as a cathedral in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in the sixth century A.D.
|Figure: Hagia Sophia|
It contains two floors centered on a giant nave that has a great dome ceiling, along with smaller domes,
|Figure: The site plan of the Temple of Karnak.|
|Figure: The Temple of Karnak.|
Karnak is one of the premier sites in all of Egypt and one of the most visited. In fact, it is perhaps one of, if not the largest religious complex ever constructed anywhere in the world. This vast, ancient Egypt complex demonstrates the religious significance of the area in ancient times. Though this complex is very complicated, by far the largest system of temples is that of Amun, a local god of Thebes (modern Luxor) who rose to national importance during Egypt’s New Kingdom.
The Temple of Amun in Egypt, unusually, is built along two axis running both east-west and north-south. It’s construction took place over many centuries, and at the command of many different Egyptian kings.
|Figure: The Pylon entrance to the Temple of Karnak.|
The original core of the temple was located near the center of the east-west axis on a mound which was itself almost certainly a very ancient sacred site. This original core was then expanded both towards the Nile in normal Egyptian fashion, but also in the direction of the outlying Mut temple to the south.
|Figure: Remains the Temple of Karnak.|
|Figure: Remains the Temple of Karnak.|
Today, visitors normally approach the temple from the west by way of a quay built by Ramesses II which gave access to the temple from a canal which, during ancient times, was linked to the Nile. Just to the right stands a small barque chapel of Hakoris (393-380 BC) which was used as a resting station on the processional journeys of the gods to and from the Nile River. A short avenue of cryosphinxes leads from the quay to the temple’s first pylon. These cryosphinxes have ram’s heads symbolizing the great state god, Amun, and each holds a statue of the king protectively between their paws.
The huge entrance pylon is actually unfinished, as attested by the unequal height of its upper regions, the uncut clocks which project from its undecorated surfaces and the remains of the mud-brick construction ramp that is still present on its interior side. Originally, it stood some 40 meters high (131 feet). This structure may have been built as late as the 30th Dynasty by Nectanebo I, who at least constructed the temenos walls to which the pylon is attached. However, this is uncertain and it is possible that an earlier pylon once stood on the same spot. High upon this gate is an inscription left by Napoleon’s Expedition, which is still visible.
|Figure: Remains the Temple of Karnak.|
Passing through this pylon, the first courtyard now encloses an area that was originally outside of the temple, as evidenced by a number of cryosphinxes like those outside that were displaced from their original positions along the processional route. Inside this courtyard to the left is the granite and sandstone triple barque chapel of Seti II, which contains three chambers for the barques of Mut (left), Amun (center) and Khonsu (right). Opposite this shrine is a small sphinx with the features of Tutankhamun.
Centered within the courtyard are the remains of the kiosk of Taharqa, which was later usurped by Psammetichus II and later still, restored during Egypt’s Greek Period. It originally consisted of ten huge papyrus columns linked by a low screening wall and open at its eastern and western ends. Now there is only one great column and a large, altar-like block of calcite (Egyptian alabaster). The function of this structure has been assumed to be a barque shrine but, because it is open to the sky, it has been suggested that the structure may have served another ritual purpose.
Notre Dame Cathedral is widely considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in the world. It was restored and saved from destruction by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, one of France’s most famous architects. The name Notre Dame means “Our Lady” in French, and is frequently used in the names of Catholic church buildings in Francophone countries.The Notre Dame Cathedral was one of the first Gothic cathedrals, and its construction spanned the Gothic period. Its sculptures and stained glass show the heavy influence of naturalism, unlike that of earlier Romanesque architecture.
|Figure: Notre Dame Cathedral, paris.|
The Notre Dame Cathedral Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress (arched exterior supports). The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave. After the construction began and the thinner walls (popularized in the Gothic style) grew ever higher, stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral’s architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued the pattern.
The cathedral suffered desecration during the radical phase of the French Revolution in the 1790s, when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. During the 19th century, an extensive restoration project was completed, returning the cathedral to its previous state.
Answer : D
|Figure: the inside view, Notre Dame Cathedral, paris.|
- Match the Buildings in Group-I with their style of Architecture in Group-II
P Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi
Q German Pavilion for World Exhibition, Barcelona
R Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
S Crystal Palace, London
1 Industrial Architecture
3 Radical Eclecticism
4 International Style
5 Neo Classical
(A) P- 5 Q -3 R- 2 S – I
(B) P-5, Q-4, R-2, S-1
(C)P- I, Q- 5, R- 4, S – 3
(D) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-5
Notes: It was decided in the Delhi Durbar of 1911 that the capital of India would be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. Thus was born the city of Delhi, designed by the great architect Edwin Lutyens, along with Herbert Baker. It took approximately 20 years and 15 million pounds to build New Delhi. Built as the Viceral Lodge, Delhi Rashtrapati Bhawan comprises of four floors and 340 rooms. Now known as the President House of New Delhi, it is spread over an area of approximately 200,000-sq-feet. It took 18 years to construct this building and on the on the 18th year of its completion, India became independent.
|Figure: The Rastrapati Bhawan, New Delhi.|
The Jaipur Column, a gift from the Maharaja of Jaipur, stands at a height of 145 m in the middle of the main court in front of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. Another one of the impressive features of the Delhi Rashtrapati Bhawan comprises of the outstandingly beautiful Mughal Gardens. Then, at the base of the building, is a spacious square, known as the Vijay Chowk. The massive neo-Buddhist copper dome of the President House of New Delhi is splendid and can be seen even from a distance of a kilometer. Underneath this fabulous dome is the circular Durbar Hall, housing the Viceroy’s throne, measuring almost 22.8 m in diameter. Before the National Museum was completed, it served as a museum for a number of years. All the official ceremonies such as the swearing in of the Prime Minister, the Cabinet and the Members of Parliament, etc., take place in this hall only. Also, the Arjuna Awards for Excellence are awarded by the President from here itself. On the ground floor of the Rashtrapati Bhavan are a number of state apartments. Then, there is the State Drawing Room, State Ballroom, State Dining Room and a number of other such rooms inside the building. The Delhi Rashtrapati Bhawan consists of 54 bedrooms, along with additional accommodation for guests.
Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the Rashtrapati or the President of India. Prior to Indian Independence, this great palace belonged to the Viceroy and was known as the Viceroy House. The huge palace belonged to the Viceroy of India till the year 1950.
About the Rashtrapati Bhavan:
|Figure: Layout plan, The Rastrapati Bhawan, New Delhi.|
Rashtrapati Bhavan is a major attraction of Delhi. It is a marvelous structure built with the purpose of sheltering the head of the state. This humongous monument has been a piece of attraction not only to the people of India but also tourists from all over the world. The Rashtrapati Bhavan is splendor with its different architectural designs and styles. The monument has the Mughal architectural designs, Persian art forms,Indian designs and the European architectural styles as well.Located in the Raisina Hills, this monument is the main eye candy of New Delhi.
History of Rashtrapati Bhavan
After Calcutta was removed as the capital of British India, Delhi was chosen as the next capital. British Government chose Delhi as its ruling capital and devised plans to adorn the city with some offices and a palace for the Viceroy. To put these plans into action, the official architect of the British Government, Edwin Landseer Lutyens was summoned. He and Herbert Baker designed the Viceroy Home or what is known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan.
Initially, these two renowned architects of the British Government started their work on the Rashtrapati Bhavan on good terms, but later they got into arguments.
Inside the Rashtrapati Bhavan:
The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the biggest residence of the Head of the State in the world. It not only has a spectacular exterior, but is adorned with beauties on its interiors too. The Rashtrapati Bhavan consists of 340 rooms and is a four storied building. The building is built with stone and bricks. It has an attractive dome shaped roof which is peaked at the top of the building. There were chajjas, stone water basins, jaalis and so on, which indicates the use of Indian style of architecture in the Rashtrapati Bhavan. Although, the dome of the building is said to have been influenced by Roman architecture, it indicates an influence of the famous Sanchi Stupa.
The temple bells adorned at the pillars of the Rashtrapati Bhavan also indicates the presence of Indian style of designs at this great monument.
The main areas of the Rashtrapati Bhavan are:
The State Library
The State Drawing Room
The Private Apartments
The State Dining Room
The State Ballroom
The German Pavilion , designed by Mies van der Rohe was the flag that was presented Germany to the International Exhibition held in Barcelona 1929 and represented the introduction to the world of the modern architectural movement. It was conceived to accommodate the official reception presided over by King Alfonso XIII with the German authorities. Originally called the German Pavilion, later renamed Barcelona Pavilion was the card of Germany after WWI , emulating the progress within the modern culture of a nation that still had its roots in
the classic story . Its sleek design combined with rich natural materials Mies served as a bridge to their future career within the architectural modernism.
|Figure: German Pavilion for World Exhibition, Barcelona.|
Unlike other pavilions at the exposition, Mies understood his pavilion simply as a building and nothing else, would house art or sculpture , however the pavilion would be a place of tranquility in which to take refuge from the bustle of the exhibition, which has itself flag in a living sculpture. It is an important step in the history of modern architecture building, since all ideas nascent modernism with more freedom than in other works , its only function was to disseminate these new ideas, and the use of new materials is reflected in it and construction techniques .
GUGGENHEIM New York, Venice, Bilbao, Abu Dhabi
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
In 1943, Frank Lloyd Wright was commissioned to design a building to house the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, which had been established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1939. In a letter dated June 1, 1943, Hilla Rebay, the curator of the foundation and director of the museum, instructed Wright, “I want a temple of spirit, a monument!”
|Figure: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Wright’s inverted-ziggurat design was not built until 1959. Numerous factors contributed to this sixteen-year delay: modifications to the design (all told, the architect produced six separate sets of plans and 749 drawings), the acquisition of additional property, and the rising costs of building materials following World War II. The death of the museum’s benefactor, Solomon R. Guggenheim, in 1949 further delayed the project. It was not until 1956 that construction of the museum, renamed in Guggenheim’s memory, finally began.
|Figure: Inside, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Frank Lloyd Wright’s masterpiece opened to the public on October 21, 1959, six months after his own death, and was immediately recognized as an architectural landmark. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is arguably the most important building of Wright’s late career. A monument to modernism, the unique architecture of the space, with its spiral ramp riding to a domed skylight, continues to thrill visitors and provide a unique forum for the presentation of contemporary art. In the words of Paul Goldberger, “Wright’s building made it socially and culturally acceptable for an architect to design a highly expressive, intensely personal museum. In this sense almost every museum of our time is a child of the Guggenheim.”
SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM ANNEX, 1985–92
Frank Lloyd Wright’s original plans for the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum called for a ten-story tower behind the smaller rotunda, to house galleries, offices, workrooms, storage, and private studio apartments. Largely for financial reasons, Wright’s proposed tower went unrealized. Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects revived the tower plan with its eight-story tower, which incorporates the foundation and framing of a smaller 1968 annex designed by Frank Lloyd Wright’s son-in-law, William Wesley Peters.
In 1990, the Wright building was closed to the public to enable the expansion and a major interior restoration, which was overseen by the firm. The restoration opened the entire Wright building to the public for the first time, converting spaces that had been used for storage and offices into galleries. The restored and expanded Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum reopened in 1992, and the project became one of the firm’s most celebrated and critically acclaimed works. It contains 4,750 square meters of new and renovated gallery space, 130 square meters of new office space, a restored restaurant, and retrofitted support and storage spaces.
Gwathmey Siegel & Associates’ subtle intervention greatly improved the exhibition capabilities of the museum without detracting from Wright’s original design. The tower’s simple facade and grid pattern highlight Wright’s unique spiral design and serves as a backdrop to the rising urban landscape behind the museum.
Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice
|Figure: Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice
Envisioned as an ornate, five-story palazzo along Venice’s Grand Canal, the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni was designed by Lorenzo Boschetti. Only one floor of the palace, which was begun in the 1750s, was ever realized. In 1948, Peggy Guggenheim, niece of Solomon, purchased the building for her home, and installed her extensive collection of modern art in it.
Peggy Guggenheim opened her collection to the public in 1949 with an exhibition of sculptures in the garden, and expanded access to the rest of the house in 1951. In 1969, she decided to bequeath her entire collection, and the palazzo, to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Following Peggy’s death in 1979, the foundation assumed responsibility for the building and the collection.
By the spring of 1985, all of the rooms on the main floor had been converted into galleries and the basement rooms into support areas for the museum; the white Istrian stone facade and its unique canal terrace had been restored; the barchessa had been rebuilt and enclosed; and the garden was landscaped by the Venetian architect Giorgio Bellavitis. In 1993, apartments adjacent to the museum were converted to galleries, a garden annex, and a shop designed by Lella Vignelli of Vignelli Associates, New York. In 1995 the museum café opened, more exhibition rooms were added, and the Nasher Sculpture Garden was completed. In 1999 and 2000 two remaining neighboring properties were acquired. The expansions were supervised by Clemente di Thiene and his son Giacomo di Thiene. Since 1993, the museum has doubled in size, from 2,000 to 4,000 square meters.
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Plans for a new museum in Bilbao date to the late 1980s, when the Basque Administration began formulating a major redevelopment of the region. It was not until 1991, however, that Basque authorities proposed the idea for a Guggenheim Museum Bilbao to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. In moving forward with the museum a site was selected and three architects, Arata Isozaki from Japan, Coop Himmelb(l)au from Austria, and Frank O. Gehry from the United States, were invited to participate in a competition to produce a conceptual design. These
|Figure: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
were no requirements in terms of drawings or models to be produced; rather, the architects were only asked to present what they thought would convey their concept for the new museum.
Almost from the moment it opened in 1997, Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, with its distinctive titanium curves and soaring glass atrium, was hailed as one of the most important buildings of the 20th century. Gehry’s use of cutting-edge computer-aided design technology enabled him to translate poetic forms into reality. The resulting architecture is sculptural and expressionistic, with spaces unlike any others for the presentation of art. The museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context, unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone, glass, and titanium on a 32,500-square-meter site along the Nervión River in the old industrial heart of the city.
Eleven thousand square meters of exhibition space are distributed over nineteen galleries. Ten of these galleries have a classic orthogonal plan and can be identified from the exterior by their stone finishes. Nine other irregularly shaped galleries present a remarkable contrast and can be identified from the outside by their swirling forms and titanium cladding. The largest gallery, measuring 30 meters wide and 130 meters long, was used for temporary exhibitions for several years. In 2005, it became the site of the largest sculpture commission in history, Richard Serra’s monumental installation The Matter of Time.
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a pinnacle in Gehry’s outstanding architectural career as well as in the field of museum design. It remains unsurpassed in its integration of art and architecture, maintaining an aesthetic and programmatic unity.
Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
|Figure: Guggenheim Abu Dhabi
The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, designed by internationally renowned American architect Frank Gehry, is an experiment in inventive 21st-century museum design. The building defines a new approach to the museum visitor experience and presents an innovative vision for viewing contemporary art in the context of a desert landscape.
Currently under development, the new 450,000-square-foot museum is situated on a peninsula at the northwestern tip of Saadiyat Island adjacent to Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Surrounded on three sides by the gleaming waters of the Persian Gulf, the building site also serves as a manmade breakwater configured to protect the island’s pristine north beach zone.
The Gehry concept for the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi features permanent-collection and special-exhibitions galleries; a center for art and technology; a center for contemporary Arab, Islamic, and Middle Eastern culture; an education facility; a research center; and a state-of-the-art conservation laboratory. This museum will be the Guggenheim Foundation’s largest facility.
Inspired by expansive industrial studio spaces, the museum design reflects the large scale at which many contemporary artists work, and presents new gallery layouts unlike conventional museum spaces. Clusters of galleries in varying heights, shapes, and character, allow for curatorial flexibility in organizing exhibitions at dimensions that have not previously existed. Evolving from several main cues, clusters of galleries connected by catwalks center around a covered courtyard. Additional vertical clusters of galleries pile on top of the central circulation creating a combination of vertical and horizontal spaces for exhibition organization. The design also incorporates sustainable elements appropriate for the region including natural cooling and ventilation of covered courtyards derived from the concept of traditional wind towers found throughout the Middle East.
The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi is the largest museum in a series of cultural institutions planned as part of the Saadiyat Island Cultural District, which will serve the world as a destination for the advancement of knowledge and the understanding of culture through the arts.
|Figure: Crystal Palace, London
Crystal Palace, giant glass-and-iron exhibition hall in Hyde Park, London, that housed the Great Exhibition of 1851. The structure was taken down and rebuilt (1852–54) at Sydenham Hill (now in the borough of Bromley), at which site it survived until 1936.
In 1849 Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria and president of the Royal Society of Arts, conceived the idea of inviting international exhibitors to participate in an exposition. Plans were developed and the necessary funds speedily raised, with Victoria herself heading the list of subscribers. The exhibition opened in the Crystal Palace on May 1, 1851.
The Crystal Palace, designed by Sir Joseph Paxton, was a remarkable construction of prefabricated parts. It consisted of an intricate network of slender iron rods sustaining walls of clear glass. The main body of the building was 1,848 feet (563 metres) long and 408 feet (124 metres) wide; the height of the central transept was 108 feet (33 metres). The construction occupied some 18 acres (7 hectares) on the ground, while its total floor area was about 990,000 square feet (92,000 square metres, or about 23 acres [9 hectares]). On the ground floor and galleries there were more than 8 miles (13 km) of display tables.
Some 14,000 exhibitors participated, nearly half of whom were non-British. France sent 1,760 exhibits and the United States 560. Among the American exhibits were false teeth, artificial legs, Colt’s repeating pistol, Goodyear india rubber goods, chewing tobacco, and McCormick’s reaper. Popular British exhibits included hydraulic presses, powerful steam engines, pumps, and automated cotton mules (spinning machines). More than six million visitors attended the exhibition, which was open to the public until October 11. The event showed a significant profit, and a closing ceremony was held on October 15. Thereafter the building was taken down, and it was rebuilt at Sydenham Hill in Upper Norwood, overlooking London from the south.
The Crystal Palace established an architectural standard for later international fairs and exhibitions that likewise were housed in glass conservatories, the immediate successors being the Cork Exhibition of 1852, the Dublin and New York City expositions of 1853, the Munich Exhibition of 1854, and the Paris Exposition of 1855.
Answer : B
- Match the Terms in Group-I with their Definitions in Group-II
|P Kinesthesia||1 Measurement and study of size and proportions of human body|
|Q Anthropometry||2 Study of man- machine interaction|
|R Ergonomics||3 Study of past and present of the human race|
|S Biomimicry||4 Study of human sensory experience during movement|
|5 Imitation of models, systems and elements of nature|
(A) P-5, Q-3, R-4, S-1
(B) P-5, Q-2, R-4, S-3
(C) P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-5
(D) P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-3
|Figure: Biomimicry is an approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to human challenges by emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies.
- Match the following Urban Spaces in Group-I with their Names in Group-II
|Figure: Piazza del Campo, example of a square (public space)|
(A) P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-3
(B) P-2, Q-3, R-1, S-5
(C) P-4, Q-3, R-1, S-5
(D) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3
Notes: Piazza del Campo is a unique place in the whole of the world, starting with the very particular conformation of the ground, which turns the square into a big concave shell. The paving is made of red bricks arranged in fishbone style, divided into a sunburst pattern by nine strips of travertine (in memory of the Government of the Nine, who ruled over the city from 1292 to 1355).
|Figure: Paving pattern, Piazza del Campo|
The white marble of the Gaia Fountain stands out on the paving, it is the masterpiece of 1419 by Jacopo della Quercia, later replaced by a copy.
|Figure: Layout, Piazza del Campo|
At the base of the Palazzo is the Chapel of the Virgin, or Chapel of the Square, constructed and voted for by the Sienese, after the end of the terrible plague of 1348.
And surrounding the chapel are the elegant façades of the Palazzi Signorili, belonging to the wealthiest of families: the Sansedoni, the Piccolomini, and the Saracini.
The piazza took shape at the end of the 1200s, on a space that was for a long time used for fairs and markets and was situated at a crossroad of important streets. When it was built (the flooring dates back to the 1300s, it managed to hold the entire population of Siena, who gathered here to attend events, tournaments, and buffalo and bull races. Piazza del Campo has hosted almost all the important events in the history of the city, from the time of the Republic up until the Medici period, during which Siena come under the control of Florence of Cosimo I de’Medici.
|Figure: Bird’s eye view
Piazza del Campo
Il Campo has always been the theatre of the most important citizens’ events and the privileged meeting place of the Sienese. Today it also plays host to the most talked-about popular festival, famous throughout the world: The Palio of Siena.
St. Peter’s Square
The striking square and its imposing colonnade lead to the greatest basilica of the Christian world: St Peter’s Basilica (Basilica San Pietro). It also represents the core of the Vatican City, the smallest state in the world.
In the origins, the square used to be the place where Nerone Circus and Gardens where located, and where many Christians, including Saint Peter, suffered from martyrdom.
|Figure: St. Peter’s Square
In the centre of the square stands out an Egyptian obelisk (without hieroglyphics and built during the Ramsete II dynasty) brought to Rome by Emperor Caligola in 37 B.C.
|Figure: Plan of St. Peter’s Square|
Designed and built by Bernini between 1656 and 1667, during the pontificate of Alexander VII (1655-1667), the square is made up of two different areas. The first has a trapezoid shape, marked off by two straight closed and convergent arms on each side of the church square. The second area is elliptical and is surrounded by the two hemicycles of a four-row colonnade, because, as Bernini said, “considering that Saint Peter’s is almost the matrix of all the churches, its portico had to give an open-armed, maternal welcome to all Catholics, confirming their faith; to heretics, reconciling them with the Church; and to the infidels, enlightening them about the true faith.” Bernini had in fact designed a three-armed portico, but after Alexander VII’s death, construction of the portico was halted, and the third arm was never built. It would have enclosed the whole building and separated the ellipse from the “Borgo” quarter, thus creating a “surprise effect” for the pilgrim who suddenly found himself in the square. This effect was somewhat achieved by the buildings surrounding the square, the so-called “Spina di Borgo”, which naturally “closed in” the square. In 1950, Via della Conciliazione, a new, wide street leading to the Vatican Basilica, was opened. It
|Figure: Features around St. Peter’s Square|
amplifies the majestic view of Saint Peter’s dome, but it also profoundly modified Bernini’s original plan. The measurements of the square are impressive: it is 320 m deep, its diameter is 240 m and it is surrounded by 284 columns, set out in rows of four, and 88 pilasters. Around the year 1670, Bernini’s pupils built 140 statues of saints, 3.20 m high along the balustrade above the columns. On either side of the obelisk, which was moved to the middle of the square by Domenico Fontana in 1585, are two great fountains built by Bernini (1675) and Maderno (1614). Below, at the foot of the staircase in front of the basilica, the statues of Saint Peter and Saint Paul seem to welcome visitors.
Of great interest is the Royal Staircase, which links the square to the Vatican Palaces. It was built between 1662 and 1666, and although it actually measures 60 metres, perspective devices, such as the progressive narrowing of the width and a reduced distance between the columns towards the top, make it look much longer.
|Figure: Trafalgar Square, London|
Trafalgar Square is a public space in central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. At its centre is Nelson’s Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of commemorative statues and sculptures in the square. The square is also used for political demonstrations and community gatherings, such as the celebration of New Year’s Eve.
|Figure: The giant blue-cock at Trafalgar Square|
|Figure: Bird’s eye view, Trafalgar Square, London|
The name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain which took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, Spain. The original name was to have been “King William the Fourth’s Square”, but George Ledwell Taylor suggested the name “Trafalgar Square”.
The brass lions at the base of Nelson’s Column in London’s Trafalgar Square are a popular place to pose for photographs
|Figure: The brass lions at the base of Nelson’s Column in London’s Trafalgar Square|
In the 1820s George IV engaged the architect John Nash to redevelop the area. Nash cleared the square as part of his Charing Cross Improvement Scheme. The present architecture of the square is due to Sir Charles Barry and was completed in 1845.
Roman Forum is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
|Figure: The Roman Forum|
It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city’s great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million sightseers yearly.
|Figure: The ruins and an artistic impression of the Roman Forum|
Figure: The ruins and an artistic impression of the Roman Forum
The Agora, the marketplace and civic center, was one of the most important parts of an ancient city of Athens. In addition to being a place where people gathered to buy and sell all kinds of commodities, it was also a place where people assembled to discuss all kinds of topics: business, politics, current events, or the nature of the universe and the divine. The Agora of Athens, where ancient Greek democracy first came to life, provides a wonderful opportunity to examine the commercial, political, religious, and cultural life of one of the great cities of the ancient world.
- Match the terms in Group-I with the appropriate Items in Group-II
|P Toposheet||1 Path/Row|
|Q Satellite Image||2 Contour|
|R Wavelength||3 Focal Length|
|S Scan Line||4 Spectral Signature|
(A) P-5, Q-4, R-2, S-1
(B) P-5, Q-1, R-4, S-3
(C) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-5
(D) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-5
- Match the Concepts in Group-I with their appropriate Explanation in Group-II
|P Planned Unit Development||1 Development occurring on vacant or underused lots in otherwise built up areas|
|Q Infill Development||2 Development providing a fair and equitable way to integrate peri-urban areas|
|R Transit Oriented Development||3 Developing a large area as a single entity merging zoning and subdivision control|
|S Mixed Use Development||4 Development with compatible land uses integrating varied activities at different times of the day|
|5 Development located within walking distance from mass transit stations along the corridor|
(A) P-3, Q-2, R-5, S-4
(B) P-3, Q-1, R-5, S-4
(C) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-5
(D) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-5
- Particles of soil descending order of grain size is:
(A) Gravel – Sand – Silt –Clay
(C) Sand – Gravel – Clay –Silt
Answer : A
- Match the Units in Group-I with their Definitions in Group-II
|P Hertz||1 Newton-meter|
|Q Lux||2 Cycles/second|
|R Joule||3. Lumen/square meter|
|S Newton||4. Watt/ampere|
|5 kg-meter/square second|
(A) P-5 ,Q-4 ,R-2 ,S-1
(B) P-3, Q-1, R-5, S-4
(C) P-2 , Q-3 R-1 , S-4
(D) P-2, Q-3, R-1, S-5
- Match the Energy Efficient Building Elements in Group-I with their associated Working Principles in Group-II
|P Solar Chimney||1 Thermal Storage|
|Q Earth Air Tunnel||2 Radiant Cooling|
|R Trombe Wall||3 Stack Effect|
|S Chilled Slab||4 Cross Ventilation|
|5 Geothermal Energy|
(A) P-3, Q-2, R-4, S-5
(B) P-5, Q-2, R-4, S-3
(C) P-3, Q-5, R-1, S-2
(D) P-4, Q-5, R-1, S-2
Solar chimney is a simple passive solar ventilation system which is known since antiquity.
Natural ventilation and stack effect
|Figure: Natural ventilation and stack effect
Natural ventilation means changing the air flow in the area without using additional means, i.e. without using a fan. The forces that drive and influence on natural ventilation are wind or stack effect. It means that there is air flow through the channels caused by the wind as a result of the conversion of dynamic pressure to static. As the air temperature rises its density is reduced (which becomes lighter) and causes its flow upward. Stack effect is a phenomenon whose very essence is this phenomenon. As a prelude to its appearance there must be a temperature difference between interior space and the environment.
The principle of the solar chimney
As mentioned, this is very simple and inexpensive means of ventilation which in its simplest version consists of a chimney, painted in black. Why the black? An ideal black body is a perfect absorber and absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it. This means that the body painted in black will soak more sunlight that falls on it in comparison with the body of another color. During the day, solar radiation heats the chimney and the air inside it moves upward.
As the warm air rises up into the base of the chimney there is a weak negative pressure causing a flow of air occurs from building towards the chimney. Then in the structure occurs under pressure and the airflow into the structure appears. In the variant shown in Figure external environmental air into the subterranean heat exchanger, which is also a container of fresh air, and this is cooled by passing the warmth of the soil. Can be considered that the soil at a particular depth always has the same temperature (from +8 to +12 º C), which provides exactly this kind of passive cooling. This cooled air is then due to the aforementioned negative pressure in the building flows from the cooling tank into the building.
|Figure: Trombe Walls
Trombe walls are thermal storage walls, named after the French inventor Felix Trombe. A typical Trombe wall consists of a 20 – 40cm (8″ – 16″) thick masonry wall painted a dark, heat-absorbing color and faced with a single or double layer of glass. The glass is placed between 2 – 15cm (1″ – 6″) away from the masonry wall to create a small airspace. Heat from sunlight passing through the glass is absorbed by the dark surface, stored in the wall, and conducted slowly inward through the masonry.
The glass prevents the escape of radiant heat from the warm surface of the storage wall. The heat radiated by the wall is therefore trapped within the air gap, further heating the wall surface. For a 40cm (16″) thick Trombe wall, heat will take about 8 to 10 hours to reach the interior of the building. This means that the room behind remains comfortable through the day and receives slow, even heating for many hours after the sun sets. Such designs are ideal for use in residential living areas and bedrooms.
|Figure: Earth Air Tunnels
Earth Air Tunnels
Although, this technique is essentially used for cooling the air in Hot and dry climates, it can also be used for winter heating. Earth- air tunnels may be considered as special types of wind towers connected to an underground tunnel. The cooling process is based on the fact that the temperature a few meters below the ground is almost constant throughout the year. A wind tower is connected to the underground tunnel, which runs from the bottom of the wind tower to the basement of the building. The wind tower catches the wind which is forced down the tower into the tunnel. The temperature of the tunnel, being lower than that of the ambient temperature, cools the air before it is circulated into the living space. In winter, the temperature of the air tunnel is higher than the ambient temperature and hence warms the air passing through it.
Sensible cooling can be aided by evaporative cooling. To reduce the underground temperature, the ground can be shaded using vegetation and can be wetted by sprinkling water. This water seeps through and dampens the tunnel walls. Consequently, air from the tunnel is evaporatively cooled as it passes through the tunnel. Another variation possible is to use buried pipes instead in place of tunnel.
Radiant cooling systems typically use chilled water running in pipes in thermal contact with the surface. The circulating water only needs to be 2-4°C below the desired indoor air temperature.Heat is removed by the water flowing in the hydronic circuit once the heat from different sources in the space is absorbed by the actively cooled surface – ceiling, floor or walls.
Answer : C
- Match the Vibrator Types in Group-I with their related Areas of Application in Group-II
|P Needle Vibrator||1 Concrete Pavement|
|Q Shutter Vibrator||2 Pre-cast Concrete Unit|
|R Surface Vibrator||3 Beam-Column Junction|
|S Table Vibrator||4 Retaining Wall|
|5 Slip Forming|
(A) P-1, Q-5, R-4, S-3
(B) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2
(C) P-1, Q-4, R-2, S-5
(D) P-3, Q-5, R-1, S-2
Notes: TYPES OF CONCRETE VIBRATORS FOR COMPACTION
Since concrete contains particles of varying sizes, the most satisfactory compaction would perhaps be obtained by using vibrators with different speeds of vibration. Polyfrequency vibrators used for compacting concrete of stiff consistency are being developed. The vibrators for compacting concrete are manufactured with frequencies of vibration from 2800 to 15000 rpm. The various types of vibrators used are described below:
|Figure: Immersion or Needle Vibrators
Immersion or Needle Vibrators:
Immersion or needle concrete vibrators
This is perhaps the most commonly used vibrator. It essentially consists of a steel tube (with one end closed and rounded) having an eccentric vibrating element inside it. This steel tube called poker is connected to an electric motor or a diesel engine through a flexible tube. They are available in size varying from 40 to 100 mm diameter. The diameter of the poker is decided from the consideration of the spacing between the reinforcing bars in the form-work.
The frequency of vibration varies upto 15000 rpm. However a range between 3000 to 6000 rpm is suggested as a desirable minimum with an acceleration of 4g to 10g.
The normal radius of action of an immersion vibrator is 0.50 to 1.0m. However, it would be preferable to immerse the vibrator into concrete at intervals of not more than 600mm or 8 to 10 times the diameter of the poker.
The period of vibration required may be of the order of 30 seconds to 2 minute. The concrete should be placed in layers not more than 600mm high.
External or Shutter Vibrators
|Figure: External or Shutter Vibrators
These vibrators are clamped rigidly to the form work at the pre-determined points so that the form and concrete are vibrated. They consume more power for a given compaction effect than internal vibrators.
|Figure: Surface concrete vibrator
These vibrators can compact upto 450mm from the face but have to be moved from one place to another as concrete progresses. These vibrators operate at a frequency of 3000 to 9000 rpm at an acceleration of 4g.
The external vibrators are more often used for pre-casting of thin in-situ sections of such shape and thickness as can not be compacted by internal vibrators.
Surface concrete vibrator
These are placed directly on the concrete mass. These best suited for compaction of shallow elements and should not be used when the depth of concrete to be vibrated is more than 250 mm.
Very dry mixes can be most effectively compacted with surface vibrators.
|Figure: Vibrating Table
The surface vibrators commonly used are pan vibrators and vibrating screeds. The main application of this type of vibrator is in the compaction of small slabs, not exceeding 150 mm in thickness, and patching and repair work of pavement slabs. The operating frequency is about 4000 rpm at an acceleration of 4g to 9g.
The vibrating table consists of a rigidly built steel platform mounted on flexible springs and is driven by an electric motor. The normal frequency of vibration is 4000 rpm at an acceleration of 4g to 7g.
The vibrating tables are very efficient in compacting stiff and harsh concrete mixes required for manufacture of precast elements in the factories and test specimens in laboratories.
- Match the type of Temporary Structure in Group-I with their corresponding Functions in Group-II
|P Scaffolding||1 To support unsafe structure|
|Q Formwork||2 To support platforms for workmen and materials at raised height during construction|
|R Shoring||3 Removal of water from pits|
|S Underpinning||4 Mould for RCC Structure|
|Group-I||5 Strengthening the existing foundation|
(A) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-5
(B) P-3, Q-5, R-1, S-2
(C) P-3, Q-4, R-5, S-2
(D) P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-5
|Figure: Scaffolding (metal & wood, both can be.)
Scaffolding is a temporary platform constructed for reaching heights above arms’ reach for the purpose of building construction, maintenance, or repair. It is usually made of lumber and steel and can range from simple to complex in design, depending on its use and purpose.
Formwork is another term for shuttering. Formwork is a structure, usually temporary, used to contain poured concrete and to mould it to the required dimensions and support until it is able to support itself. It consists primarily of the face contact material and the bearers that directly support the face contact material.
Shoring is a general term used in construction to describe the process of supporting a structure in order to prevent collapse so that construction can proceed. It can be done with the help of shores or props.
They can be used under the following circumstances:
- When walls bulge out
- When walls crack due to unequal settlement of foundation and repairs are to be carried out to the cracked wall.
- When an adjacent structure needs pulling down.
- When openings are to be newly made or enlarged in a wall.
Underpinning is a method used to increase foundation depth or repairing faulty foundations. This might be the case if you plan to add stories to an existing structure or when the foundation has been damaged. One visible sign that a building needs underpinning are cracks appearance. When a building needs a foundation repair some cracks, especially wider than ¼ inch appear visible, meaning than an underpinning needs to be done.
Foundation failures could also be considered as heaved foundations, cracked or buckled walls and cracked concrete floors.
Underpinning: Mass Pour
The most used method of underpinning is mass pour method. Excavate sections in sequence to a pre-established depth below the footing and place concrete on each pit. Repeat the method until the entire affected area has been underpinned.
|Figure: Partial underpinning
Underpinning: Screw Piles and Brackets
Underpinning with screw piles and brackets is normally used in certain instances where traditional underpinning process is not possible. Some buildings might require excavating to great depths or maybe is unfeasible to use a piling rig and the screw piles and brackets method is then selected. The screw piles and brackets can be installed by only a two man crew by hand or using small equipment such as a mini excavator. Screw piles can be installed in foundations having the capacity to work in tension and compression, withstand vertical and lateral wind forces, and vibration and shear forces. They are ideal when used with underpinning support brackets.
The structure can then be lifted back to a level position and the weight of the foundation transferred to the pier and bracket system.
Screw piles have many advantages over traditional pilings, such as the speed of installation, little noise and minimal vibration that may cause damage to the surrounding area.
Underpinning: Pile and Beam
Underpinning with pile and beams is another great and preferred method to alleviate footing. Using this system requires that a min-pile must be installed on either side of the affected wall. After the piles have been installed, then brickwork is removed below the wall and reinforced concrete needle beam is used to connect the piles and support the wall. Reducing the distance between needle beams can accommodate very high loads. The bearing capacity of the underlying strata will determine the number, diameter, depth and spacing of piles used. Augered piles or case driven piles can be used with this method of underpinning. The advantages of underpinning with pile and beams are:
Suitable for restricted access
Faster than traditional underpinning
High load capability
Less disruption, less spoil generated and completed quickly
Underpinning: Piled Raft
Underpinning with piled raft, must be used when the whole structure need to be underpinned. It is recommended when foundations are too deep for other underpinning methods or in areas where the soil is so hard that small equipment could not excavated up to require depth. Piles are placed at determined locations by loading conditions; then pockets below footings are broken, and reinforced needle beams are placed to bear the wall’s load. A ring beam is then built to link all needles and the structure is poured with concrete.
- Match following Scientific Names in Group-I with their common Indian Names in Group-II
|P Lagerstroemia speciosa||1 Amaltas|
|Q Cassia fistula||2 Neem|
|R Azadarachta indica||3 Jarul|
|S Acacia auriculiformis||4 Babul|
(A) P-2, Q-4, R-3, S-4 (B) P-5, Q-3, R-2, S-4 (C) P-3, Q-1, R-4, R-2 (D) P-3, Q-1, R-2, S-4
|Figure: Jarul (Lagerstroemia speciosa)
Lagerstroemia speciosa, also known by the common name Pride-of-India, is a shrub to large tree with multiple trunks or stems diverging from just above ground level. This species can grow up to 15 m in height and has a wide spreading crown.
In India, the wood is used for railroad sleepers and the construction of furniture, wagons, and buildings.
The wood is resistant to waterlogging and therefore is valuable for the construction of boats.
In the Philippines, it is used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and kidney diseases.
In laboratory experiments leaf extracts are reported to stimulate glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner in similar ways to insulin.
|Assamese: Ajhar||Oriya: Patoli, Ary|
|Bengali: Jarul||Punjabi: Jarul|
|English: Pride of India, Queen’s Crepe (Crape) Myrtle,||Sanskrit: Syandana|
|Crepe flower||Tamil: Kadai, Neermaruthu, Poomaruthu|
|Hindi: Azhar, Jarul||Telugu: Vargogu|
|Kannada: Holé Dāsavāla, Challa, Holé Challa|
|Malayalam: Manimaruthu, Neermaruthu, Nirventeak|
|Figure: Amaltaas (Cassia fistula)
Cassia fistula, this native of India, commonly known as Amaltaas, is one of the most beautiful of all tropical trees when it sheds its leaves and bursts into a mass of long, grape-bunches like yellow gold flowers. A tropical ornamental tree with a trunck consisting of hard reddish wood, growing up to 40 feet tall. The wood is hard and heavy; it is used for cabinet, inlay work, etc. It has showy racemes, up to 2″ long, with bright, yellow, fragrant flowers.
|Figure: Neem (Azadarachta indica)
Common name: Amaltas, Golden shower tree, Indian Laburnum • Hindi: अमलतास Amaltas • Manipuri: চহুঈ Chahui • Tamil: கொன்றை Konrai • Malayalam: Vishu konnai • Marathi: बहावा Bahava • Mizo: Ngaingaw • Bengali: সোনালী Sonali, Bandarlati, Amultas • Urdu: املتاس Amaltas
Botanical name: Cassia fistula Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Azadarachta indica . Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property. The tree is still regarded as ‘village dispensary’ in India. The importance of the neem tree has been recognized by US National Academy of Sciences, which published a report in 1992 entitled ‘Neem – a tree for solving global problems’.
- A man starts from hrs residence and uses the following modes in sequence to reach his office. Cycle rickshaw to railway station-, then train to destination station, followed by auto-rickshaw to nearby bus stand and finally a bus to office. Which of the follow describes hrs sequence of transit usage?
(A) Non Motorized Transit- Paratransit – Mass Transit – Public Transit
(B) Paratransit- Public Transit – Non Motorized Transit – Mass Transit
(C) Private Transit – Public Transit – Non Motorized Transit- Mass Transit
(D) Non Motorized Transit – Mass Transit – Paratransit – Public Transit
Answer : D
- PMGSY and JNNURM are two Indian Government programmes which deal with
(A) rural road development and urban basic service improvement respectively
(B) rural sanitation services and under-developed road maintenance respectively
(C) pert-urban basic services and urban basic service improvement respectively
(D) rural road development and urban transport development respectively
Notes: Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched on 25th December 2000 as a fully funded Centrally Sponsored Scheme to provide all weather road connectivity in rural areas of the country. The programme envisages connecting all habitations with a population of 500 persons and above in the plain areas and 250 persons and above in hill States, the tribal and the desert areas.
(JnNURM) is a massive city-modernisation scheme launched in 2005 which relates primarily to development in the context of urban conglomerates focusing to the Indian cities. JnNURM aims at creating ‘economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive Cities’ by a strategy of upgrading the social and economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.
Answer : A
- Match the Planning Terms in Group-I with their Descriptions in Group-II
|P Gentrification||1Haphazard and low density outward growth of urban area|
|Q Urban core revitalization||2 Primarily dormitory settlement with functional dependency on parent city|
|R Urban sprawl||3 Replacement of low income residents with high come population|
|S Satellite town||4 Physical and socio-economic revival of the inner-city|
|5 Restricted development in an environmentally sensitive zone|
(A) P-4, Q-3, R-5, S-2
(B) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-5
(C) P-1, Q-5, R-2, S-3
(D) P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2
Notes: Gentrification is the buying and renovation of houses and stores in deteriorated urban neighborhoods by wealthier individuals, which in effect improves property values but also can displace low-income families and small businesses. This is a common and widespread controversial topic and term in urban planning. It refers to shifts in an urban community lifestyle and an increasing share of wealthier residents and/or businesses and increasing property values.
Urban sprawl is the spreading of a city or its suburbs. It often involves the construction of residential and commercial buildings in rural areas or otherwise undeveloped land at the outskirts of a city. Most residents of typical sprawl neighborhoods live in single-family homes and commute by car to their jobs in the city. Concerns over this phenomenon and its consequences have been raised and largely focus on negative consequences for residents and the local environment. On the other hand, some argue that it illustrates positive growth of a local economy.
Urban sprawl typically is used with negative connotations, the economic growth that supports it is viewed as a positive thing by many. In addition, many support the community structure of a suburb as opposed to a city as the pace of life is typically slower and space is not at such a premium. Additionally, suburbs are often, though not necessarily, said to be safer, and as a result these areas are often places people move to to raise their children.
Satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of larger metropolitan areas.
It is limited in size, built in the vicinity of a large town or city to house and employ those who would otherwise create a demand for expansion of the existing settlement, but dependent on the parent-city to a certain extent for population and major services. Although not to be confused with Garden Cities, satellite towns were influenced by Ebenezer Howard’s theories.
- Match the Planning Concepts in Group-I with Corresponding Proponents in Group-II
|P Broadacre city||1 Le Corbusler|
|Q Radient city||2 F L Wright|
|R Industrial town||3 Robert Owen|
|S Arcosanti||4 Henry Wright|
|5 Paolo Soleri|
(A) P – 1, Q-4, R – 3 , S – 5
(B) P – 1, Q- 3, R – 5 , S- 2
(C) P- 2 , Q – 1, R – 3 , S – 5
(D) P – 2 , Q – 1, R – 5 , S – 4
|Figure: Layout Broadacre City
Broadacre City was a plan for a decentralized community that Wright promoted from the 1930s to his death in 1959. He believed that everyone should have at least an acre of land and the right to beautiful housing and carefully organized cities that were spread out, not like the congestion of places like New York, a town he insulted more than once. Broadacre was shown publically for the first time April 15 to May 15, 1935 at the Industrial Arts Exposition in Rockefeller Center, New York. It consisted of architectural models and a full model 12 by 12 feet in size, of Broadacre City itself, complete with tiny forests, homes, schools, factories, farms, and more!
Books written by him: The Disappearing City (1932), When Democracy Builds (1945), and The Living City(1958)
|Figure: Radiant City concept proposed by Le Corbusler.
Radiant City concept proposed by Le Corbusler has very large streets, suitable for several lanes of automobile traffic. Very large buildings, typically glass-walled high rises of ten to one-hundred stories tall. Buildings are widely spaced. Buildings typically not built to the edge of the sidewalk/roadway, but rather surrounded by some sort of “landscaping,” either grass or a paved “plaza.” Streets are widely spaced, and “blocks” are large. Streets are often on a rigid grid design, or if not a grid, at least a pattern that looks very well-thought-out when observed in a scale model.
Robert Owen, a British social reformer and socialist, pioneer in the cooperative movement. In 1800, Owen moved to New Lanark, Scotland, where he bought mills.There he reconstructed the community into a model industrial town with good housing and sanitation, nonprofit stores, schools, and excellent working conditions. Mill profits increased. The New Lanark experiment became famous in England and abroad, and Owen’s ideas spread. He instigated the reform that resulted in the passage of the Factory Act of 1819—a watered down version of his proposals, but still a landmark in social reform. He also proposed the formation of self-sufficient cooperative agricultural-industrial communities. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan: “Eight hours labour, Eight hours recreation, Eight hours rest”.
|Figure: Arcosanti by Paolo Soleri’s vision of an arcology.
Arcosanti is the a prototype for architect Paolo Soleri’s vision of an arcology. The idea of an arcology is the combination of architecture and ecology, a concept first conceived by Paolo Soleri in the 1950s.
Arcosanti is an experimental town in Arizona. He began construction in 1970, to demonstrate how urban conditions could be improved while minimizing the destructive impact on the earth. He taught and influenced generations of architects and urban designers who studied and worked with him there to build the town.
- The housing stock of a town has total number of 9090 dwelling units. Present population of the town is 45,450. Assuming an average household size of 4.5, the housing shortage in percentage is________
Present Population = 45,450
Household size = 4.5
So, required no of dwelling units = 45,450/4.5 =10100
Current no of dwelling units = 9090
Shortage = 10100 – 9090 = 10
Answer : 10
- A hall is 15 m long and 12 m wide. If the sum of areas of the floor and ceiling is equal to the sum of the area of its four walls, then the volume of the hall in cubic meter is________
Area of floor =15 x 12 = 180
Area of ceiling = 15 x 12 = 180
Let the height of the wall be ‘H’ meter
According to question,
Area of Floor + Area of ceiling = Area of four walls
So, 180 + 180 = wall perimeter x height of wall
So, 360 = [2(15+12)] x H
So, 360 = 54H
So, H = 20/3 meter
Therefore, volume of room = Length x Breadth x Height = 15 x12 x20/3 = 1200 cubic meter
Answer : 1200
- The actual roof area of a building is 3,60,000 sqm, which on a site plan measures 25 sq cm. The scale of the site plan is 1:____
Notes: Let the scale of the plan be 1:X
So, (1/X) 2 = (25 sq cm/ 360000 sqm)
= 25/360000 x10000 sq cm……………………..(1 sqm = 100cm x 100 cm = 10000 sq cm)
= (1/12000×12000) = (1/12000)2
So, 1/X = 1/12000
Answer : 12000
- If the annual net come from a commercial property is Rs 22,000/- and the interest rate is 8%, then the capitalized value in rupees of the property in perpetuity is________________
Let the value of the property is X
According to question, 8% of X is 22000
- (X) x 8/100 = 22000
- 8X/100 = 22000
- X = 275000 Answer
Answer : 275000
- A five storey building is constructed on a 100 m x 50 m plot having coverage of 60% (option 1). Alternatively, a four storied building is constructed on the same plot with a 50% ground coverage (option2). The ratio of FARs between options1 and 2 is ______________________
FAR = Total built up area/ Plot area
Total built up area in option 1 = (coverage area) X (no. of floors) = (100x50x0.6) X (5) = 15000
Total built up area in option 2 = (coverage area) X (no. of floors) = (100x50x0.5) X (4) = 10000
Plot area is common for both options = 100×50 = 5000 sqm
So, FAR 1/FAR 2 = [15000/5000]/[10000/5000] = 1.5
Answer : 1.5
- If a roof is treated with a layer of thermal insulation material, the internal heat gain is reduced by 60%. The U-value of the roof (without thermal insulation) is 3 Wm2/degree centigrade. Assuming a constant temperature difference between indoor and outdoor, the U-value of the thermal insulation layer in Wm2/degree centigrade is_____
We will start from the beginning with concept.
U-value = 1/ R-value
Following is the basic equation of heat flow,
is rate of heat flow
k = Thermal conductivity coefficient
A= surface area of the wall
L= wall thickness
Tf-Ti = temperature difference
R-value is inversely related to the thermal conductivity constant and is also related to thickness, thus:
So, the equation (1) becomes ,
R-value of thermal insulation material = R1
R-value of the roof = R2 = 1/U-value = 1/3 …………(given)
R-value of combined set = R1+2
According to question,
∆Q/∆t = A (Tf-Ti)/R2……………………………………(heat transfer rate when there is no insulation)
0.4 x (∆Q/∆t) = A (Tf-Ti)/R1+2…………………………..(heat transfer rate with insulation)
- 1/0.4 = R1+2/ R2
- 1/0.4 = R1+2/ (1/3)
- 1/ R1+2 = 1.2
Now as per addition of thermal resistance,
R1+2 = R1 + R2
1/1.2 = R1 + 1/3
|Figure: Infrared mapping. Most household heat is lost through the windows and roof as shown in the figure.
R1 = 2 Answer
More about U-values:
U-values measure how effective a material is an insulator. The lower the U-value is, the better the material is as a heat insulator. For example, here are some typical U-values for building materials:
- a cavity wall has a U-value of 1.6 W/m²
- a solid brick wall has a U-value of 2.0 W/m²
- a double glazed window has a U-value of 2.8 W/m².
The cavity wall is the best insulator and the double glazed window is the worst insulator. Note that you do not need to remember any U-values for the exam.
Most household heat is lost through the windows and roof as shown in the figure.
Relationship between K-value, R-value & U-value:
K-value (Thermal Conductivity)
Thermal conductivity (also known as Lambda) is the rate at which heat passes through a material, measured in watts per square metre of surface area for a temperature gradient of one kelvin for every metre thickness.This is expressed as W/mK. Thermal conductivity is not affected by the thickness of the product.
The lower the conductivity, the more thermally efficient a material is.
PIR Board: Lambda = 0.022 W/mK
Glass Fibre Roll: Lambda = 0.044 W/mK
R-Value (Thermal Resistance)
Thermal resistance is the ability of a material to prevent the passage of heat. It’s the thickness of the material (in metres) divided by its conductivity. This is expressed as m2K/W.
If the material consists of several elements, the overall resistance is the total of the resistances of each element. The higher the R-value, the more efficient the insulation.
PIR Board: 0.022 W/mK and 100mm thick; R-value = 0.1 metres ÷ 0.022 = 4.54 m2K/W
Glass Fibre Roll: 0.044 W/mk and 100mm thick; R-value = 0.1 metres ÷ 0.044 = 2.27 m2K/W
N.B. Surfaces and cavities also provide thermal resistance which must be taken into account when calculating U-values. There are standard figures for the resistances of surfaces and cavities.
U-Value (Thermal Transmittance)
Thermal transmittance, commonly known as the U-value, is a measure of the rate of heat loss of a building component. The U-value is the sum of the combined thermal resistances of all the elements in a construction, including surfaces, air spaces, and the effects of any thermal bridges, air gaps and fixings.
The U-value is expressed in watts per square metre, per degree kelvin, or W/m2K.
Start by calculating the thermal resistances of each element (R-values).
The R-value is the thickness of the product in metres ÷ Lambda (thermal conductivity).
Add the R-values of all materials used in the application (including any air gaps) and calculate the reciprocal. The reciprocal = 1 ÷ total of all R-values
PIR Board 0.022 W/mK100mm thick + Glass Fibre Roll 0.044 W/mK100mm thick
Total combined R-value = 4.54 + 2.27 = 6.81 m2K/W
U-value = 1 ÷ 6.81 = 0.147 W/m2K
Answer : 2
- A simply supported beam having effective span of 5 meter is carrying a centrally concentrated load of 16kN. The maximum bending moment in the beam in kN-m is_________
Maximum bending moment will at center = PL/4 = 20 Answer
Answer : 20
- A landscaped garden with irregular profile and minor undulation, measuring35,000 sqm has a total surface area covered with 20% brick paving, 15% cement concrete paving, and rest with grass. The peak intensity of rainfall in that region is 70 mm/hr. Tile coefficient of runoff for brick paving, cement concrete paving and grass is 0.8, 0.9 and 0.5 respectively. The estimated quantity of runoff in cubic meter/hr for the entire garden area is______________
Brick paving area = 20% of 35000 = 7000 sqm
Concrete paving area = 15 %of 35000 = 5250 sqm
Grass cover area = 65% of 35000 = 22750 sqm
Water runoff by brick paving = 0.8 x 7000 sqm area x 0.07 m of rain fall = 392.0 cum
Water runoff by concrete paving = 0.9 x 5250 sqm area x 0.07 m of rain fall = 330.75 cum
Water runoff by grass cover = 0.5 x 22750 sqm area x 0.07 m of rain fall = 796.25 cum
Answer : 1510 to 1530
- The number of standard cement bags required to prepare 1400 kg of concrete in the ratio of 1:2:4 (mixed by weight batching)
1:2:4 → 1part cement : 2 part sand : 4 part aggregates
So, To make 7 kg of concrete, amount of cement required = 1 kg
So, To make 1 kg of concrete, amount of cement required = 1/7 kg
So, To make 1400 kg of concrete, amount of cement required = (1/7)x 1400 = 200 kg
1 bag of cement contains 50 kg of cements
So, no of bags required = 200kg/50 kg = 4 bags
Answer : 4
- A class room measuring 10 m (L) x 8 m (B) x 2.7 m (H) require an Illumination level of 500 lux on the desk level using 40 W fluorescent lamps with rated output of 5000 lumens each. Assuming utilization factor of 0.5 and maintenance factor of 0.8, the number of lamps required is_____
Answer : 20
Notes: 500 lux = 500 lumen/meter square
Total lumen required = (500 lumen/meter square) x (Area of the room) = 500 x10x8
Lumen output of one lamp = 5000 lumen (given)
Actually the lumen output of the lamp will be less than 5000 lumen because of utilization factor and maintenance factor.
So, net lumen output = 5000 x 0.5 x 0.8
Required no. of lamps = Total lumen required / lumen of on lamp = 500x10x8 /5000×0.5×0.8 = 20 Ans.
Luminous flux is the rate of energy radiation in the form of light waves. The unit is lumen.
Lumen is the unit of luminous flux. It represents the flux emitted in unit solid angle of one steradian by a point source having a uniform intensity of one candela. Thus a uniform point source of one candle power emits 4π lumens.
- Illumination level required for precision work is around
(A) 50 lm/m2
(B) 100 lm/m2
(C) 200 lm/m2
(D) 500 lm/m2.
- The illumination level in houses is in the range
(A) 10-20 lumen/m2
(B) 30 – 50 lumen/m2
(C) 40-75 lumen/m2
(D) 100-140 lumen/m2.
- One lumen per square meter is the same as
(A) One lux
(B) One candela
(C) One foot candle
(D) One lumen meter.
- Candela is-the unit for
(A) Light flux
(B) Luminous intensity
(D) Luminous efficiency.
- Area of tense steel per meter width of a reinforced concrete slab is 335 sq mm. If 8 mm rods are used as reinforcement, then centre to centre spacing of the reinforcement in mm is
Total area of steel is 335 sq mm. (which is spread in 1m of width)
Area of 8 mm rod = ∏r2 = 3.14 x 4mmx 4mm = 50.24 sq mm
So, total no. of rods spread in 1m of width = 335/50.24 = 6.67
So, 7 rods are spread in 1 m of width.
So, distance between two rods will be 1m/6.67 = 150 mm
Answer : 145 to 155
- The population of a town as per Census 2011 was 22,730 and the population as per census 2001 was 15,770. Considering arithmetic projection of growth, the projected population in 2016 will be
Arithmetic projection of growth → Arithmetic progression, example 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 …
Geometric projection of growth → Geometric progression, example 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 …
In 10 years, growth in population = 22,730 – 15,770 = 6960
So, in 1 year, population growth would be = 6960/10 = 696
So, in 5 years, population growth would be = 696×5 = 3480 (Arithmetic projection)
So, after 5 years that is in 2016, the population would be = 22730 + 3480 = 26210
Answer : 26178 to 26210
- Two concrete mixers of capacity 200 liters each are used in a construction site to produce 20 cubic meter of concrete. Ingredient charging, mixing and discharge times are 3 minutes, 7 minutes and 1 minutes respectably. Assuming a tune loss of 5 minutes per hour of operation, the total time in hours for the mixers to produce the required amount of concrete will be_________.
Capacity of the concrete mixers = 2x 200 liters = 2x (200/1000) cubic meter = 0.4 cubic meter
According to question, time taken to produce 0.4 cubic meter of concrete = 3+7+1 = 11 minutes
Time taken to produce 20 cubic meter of concrete = (20/0.4) x 11 minutes = 550 minutes.
As tune loss of 5 min is in an hour
So for 550 minutes, (550/55) x 5min = 50 minutes.
So total time required = 550 + 50 = 600 minutes = 10 hours.
Answer : 10