GATE question paper with answer [GATE 2013 architecture stream]

Marking Scheme

Questions Q.1 – Q.25 carry 1mark each. Questions Q.26 – Q.55 carry 2marks each.

Questions Q.56 – Q.60 carry 1mark each, and questions Q.61 – Q.65 carry 2marks each.

For all 1 mark questions, ⅓ mark will be deducted for each wrong answer. For all 2 marks questions, ⅔ mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.  However, in the case of the linked answer question pair, there will be negative marks only for wrong answer to the first question and no negative marks for wrong answer to the second question. There is no negative marking for questions of numerical answer type.

Q.1  In case of residential apartments, the effective floor area available for use within an apartment, is known as

(A)  Carpet Area  (B)  Built-up Area  (C)  Plinth Area   (D)  Super Built-up Area                          

Notes: Carpet area is the actual usable area of an apartment, office unit, showroom, etc minus wall thickness. Carpet area is the area enclosed within the walls, actual area to lay the carpet. This area does not include the thickness of the inner walls.

Built-up area is the carpet area plus the thickness of outer walls and the balcony. 

Super built-up area is the built up area plus proportionate area of common areas such as the lobby, lifts shaft, stairs, etc.

Plinth Area is the entire carpet area along with the thickness of the external walls of the apartment. It obviously includes the thickness of the internal walls and the columns, if any, lying within the four walls of an apartment.

Answer (A) 

 Q.2  Star  Rating of an Air Conditioner is determined by its 

 (A)  Power Consumption (B)  Energy Efficiency Ratio (C)  Cooling Capacity (D)  Power of Compressor         

Notes: Star rating is a system initiated by BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) India to determine the energy efficiency of an electronic product for home use like window and split air-conditioners and other appliances.

Depending on their energy efficiency they are rated on a scale of 1 – 5 and indicated by starts for easy understanding.  Higher the number of stars, better is the energy efficiency of an air conditioner.

The energy efficiency of an AC depends on two factors: Cooling capacity (in BTU) and Power consumption (in Watts)

The cooling capacity of one ton AC should be 12000 BTU, 1.5 ton AC 18000 BTU. Some companies rate their air conditioners as 1 ton but actually their cooling capacity is less than 12000 BTU. SO the BEE has brought into force star rating system so that the manufacturers cannot misguide the consumers.

Star rating is based upon the EER of an AC. EER is cooling capacity divided by power consumed. To calculate EER in watts BTU needs to be converted into watts. 12000 BTU is equal to 3517 watts or 1BTU = 0.2937 Watts or one ton = 3517 watts

While it is important to choose an AC with higher star rating, it is equally important not to compromise on the cooling capacity, which is the primary function of an AC.

Answer (B)

 Q.3  V7 concept given by Le Corbusier refers to

 (A)  Neighbourhood Planning (B)  Housing Typologies  (C)  Architecture Design Principle (D)  Hierarchy of Roads       

Notes: The most significant role played by Le Corbusier in Chandigarh was in conceiving the city’s present urban form. It is the well-ordered matrix of his generic ‘neighbourhood unit’ and the hierarchical circulation pattern of his ‘7Vs’ that has given Chandigarh its distinctive character. The Matrix comprises a regular grid of the fast traffic V3 roads which define each neighbourhood unit, the ‘Sector’. The Sector itself was conceived as a self-sufficient and – in a radical departure from other precedents and contemporarous concepts – a completely introverted unit, but was connected with the adjoining ones through its V4 – the shopping street, as well as the bands of open space that cut across in the opposite direction. Day-to-day facilities for shopping, healthcare, recreation and the like were arrayed along the V4 – all on the shady side. The vertical green belts, with the pedestrian V7, contained sites for schools and sports activities.

Answer (D)

 Q.4  In AUTOCAD, a line of infinite length in the direction defined by starting point and through point,is known as

(A)  RAY (B)  LINE (C)  PLINE (D)  XLINE                                                                                                      

 Answer (A)

 Q.5  Orbit Tower built at the London Olympic Park has been designed by

 (A)  Foster & Partners (B)  Anish Kapoor & Cecil Balmond  (C)  Zaha Hadid & Antony Gormley (D)  Richard Rogers & Renzo Piano                                                               

Notes: Orbit Tower represents a radical advance in the architectural field of combining sculpture and structural engineering, and that it combines both stability and instability in a work that visitors can engage with and experience via an incorporated spiral walkway. It has been both praised and criticised for its bold design. It has also been criticised as a vanity project, of questionable lasting use or merit as a public art project.


Q.6  As per National Building Code 2005, the minimum size of a habitable room in m2 is

(A)  9.5 (B)  10.5 (C)  11.5 (D)  12.5      

Notes:As per National Building Code of India – ceiling of a habitable room must be at a minimum of 2.75 m [9 ft] above floor.

Answer (A)

Q.7  The urban form of Srirangam town in Tamil Nadu refers to 

(A)  Dandaka (B)  Swastika (C)  Nandyavarta   (D)  Sarvotabhadra      

Answer (D)

Q.8  PMGSY, a programme of  Government of India, deals with

(A)  Urban Employment Generation  (B)  Rural Employment Generation (C)  Rural Electrification (D)  Rural Road Development      


  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched on 25th December 2000.
  • It is a nationwide plan in India to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages of more than 500 persons in the rural areas (250 persons in the hilly and desert areas).
  • It is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • Allocations under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) increased by 59 per to Rs.12,000 crore in the Union Budget 2009-10.

Answer (D)


Q.9  Beam or lowest division of the entablature which extends from column to column, is known as

(A)  Arabesque   (B)  Arcade   (C)  Architrave     (D)  Arbour


Answer (C)

Q.10  The information that is NOT essential to be submitted for sanction of any building plan is

(A)  Site Plan (B)  Floor Plans (C)  Title Deed (D)  Land Cost      

Answer (D)

 Q.11  The tendency of an ecosystem to maintain its balance by regulatory mechanisms when disrupted, is known as

(A)    Homeostasis (B)  Entropy (C)  Succession (D)  Evolution  

Notes:Homeostasis is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH. It can be either an open or closed system. In simple terms, it is a process in which the body’s internal environment is kept stable.Entropy, a term used in Thermodynamics, is a measure of the “disorder” of a system.

When a system receives an amount of energy q at a constant temperature, T, the entropy increase DS is defined by the following equation. DS = q / T

It is very interesting to compare the behavior of entropy compared to energy. Unlike energy, entropy can be created (but not generally destroyed). In fact, your body is creating some right now as it generates heat. One of the reasons that your body temperature has to be higher than the surrounding air, or that you have to sweat off water if it isn’t, is that you have to get rid of the extra entropy (otherwise, you would become disorganized and eventually die). The energy that your warm body radiates carries away the extra entropy. It does this because losing this energy decreases the number of microscopic states that the atoms and molecules of your body can be in.

Succession : The progressive replacement of one dominant type of species or community by another in an ecosystem until a stable climax community is established.

Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. 


Q.12  Gantt Chart DOES NOT provide information about

(A)  List of Jobs (B)  Duration of Jobs (C)  Interdependency of Jobs (D)  Progress of Work


A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt , that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project.

Answer (C)

Q.13  If threshold of hearing has a sound level of zero  decibels and the sound level in a broadcasting studio is 100 times the threshold of hearing, its value in decibels would be

(A)    0 (B)  10 (C)  20 (D)  100

Notes: dB=10log(100I/I) =20 


Q.14  The width to height ratio of the front facade of Parthenon (without the pediment) is 

(A)  9:4 (B)  4:9 (C)  1:1.618 (D)  1.618:1    



Q.15  The face of an Icosahedron is

(A)  Equilateral Triangle (B)  Isosceles Triangle (C)  Square (D)  Pentagon


Answer (A)

Q.16  The term ‘Zeitgist’, used in contemporary architecture, refers to

(A)  Iconicity (B)  Spirit of Times (C)  Kinesthetics  (D)  Semantic Associations

Notes: German words zeit meaning `time’ and geist meaning `spirit’  

Answer (B)

Q.17  Alhambra, a UNESCO world heritage site, is classified as an example of 

(A)  Moorish Architecture (B)  Mudejar Architecture

(C)  Mozarabic Architecture (D)  Tudor Architecture

Notes: Moorish architecture is a variation of Islamic architecture. There are many motifs, or repeated patterns, in Moorish architecture. This photo gallery illustrates just a few. The first slide gives an overview of the motifs: different styles of arches, calligraphy, vegetative design, and decorative tiles. 

Moorish architecture is named after the Moors, North African people who conquered the Iberian Peninsula and many islands in the Western Mediterranean beginning in the 700s. The Moors controlled what is now Spain, Portugal, and the Pyrenees region of France for hundreds of years. 

The Moors adopted Islamic architecture that developed in the Middle East. Although mosques are the most common examples of Moorish architecture, motifs spread to the design of homes and places of businesses. One of the most famous examples of Moorish architecture, the Mezquita or Grand Mosque of Cordoba, Spain, is today the region’s Catholic cathedral.  

Answer (A)

Q.18  Wythenshawe and Becontree are examples of 

(A)  Factory Town (B)  Satellite Town

(C)  Garden City    (D)  Vertical Neighborhood

Notes: Satellite towns, as the name implies, are planned communities outside of a large urban centre. Urban planners differentiate between suburbs and satellites by a simple method of access time to city centre to do daily business etc.
In short, Satellites are to suburbia as suburbia is to a city.  

Answer (B)

Q.19  National Ceremonial Plaza at Thimpu in Bhutan has been designed by

(A)  Christopher Charles Benninger (B)  Charles Correa

(C)  Karan Grover (D)  I. M. Pei

Notes: Category: Civic and community 
Location: Thimphu, Bhutan 
Architect: Christopher Charles Benninger 


Answer (A)

Q.20  Physiochemical process of removing micro-organisms, colour and turbidity from sullage and sewage is known as

(A)  Putrefaction (B)  Clarification

(C)  Liquefaction (D)  Infiltration

Notes:Putrefaction is one of seven stages in thedecomposition of the body of a dead animal. It can be viewed, in broad terms, as the decomposition of proteins.

Liquefaction is the process of liquefying or making liquid.

Clarification is a pretreatment process of effluent 


 Q.21  Identify which is NOT a green building rating system


Notes: CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) is thegreen building management system in Japan.

CASBEE was developed according to the following policies:

1) The system should be structured to award high assessments to superior buildings, thereby enhancing incentives to designers and others.
2) The assessment system should be as simple as possible.
3) The system should be applicable to buildings in a wide range of building types.
4) The system should take into consideration issues and problems peculiar to Japan and Asia.

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is an internationally recognized green building certification system,  providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.

BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) is the leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the de facto measure used to describe a building’s environmental performance.BREEAM provides clients, developers, designers and others with:

  • market recognition for low environmental impact buildings
  • assurance that best environmental practice is incorporated into a building
  • inspiration to find innovative solutions that minimise the environmental impact
  • a benchmark that is higher than regulation
  • a tool to help reduce running costs, improve working and living environments
  • a standard that demonstrates progress towards corporate and organisational environmental objectives

BREEAM addresses wide-ranging environmental and sustainability issues and enables developers and designers to prove the environmental credentials of their buildings to planners and clients. It:

  • uses a straightforward scoring system that is transparent, easy to understand and supported by evidence-based research
  • has a positive influence on the design, construction and management of buildings
  • sets and maintains a robust technical standard with rigorous quality assurance and certification

  Answer (C)

Q.22  In 3DS Max, smooth 3D surfaces, by blending a series of selected shape curves, can be created by

(A)  Lofting (B)  Sweeping (C)  Filleting (D)  Extruding  

Answer (A)

Q.23  Travel behavior characteristics of an urban area can be derived from

(A)  Parking Survey (B)  Demographic Survey

(C)  Socio Economic Survey (D)  Origin & Destination Survey

Notes:The O-D survey surveys households in order to obtain an accurate picture of all trips made by residents on an average of the type of transportation used.

The O-D survey is a source of reliable, up-to-date and complete information on urban transportation systems. It directly contributes to improving the planning of the urban environment and transportation systems, networks and modes.

Answer (D)

Q.24  In GIS, the set of entities representing vector data type is 

(A)  Point, Line, Polygon, TIN (B)  Pixel, Voxel

(C)  DEM, DSM, DTM (D)  Coordinates, Elevation, Slope

Notes: GIS uses two types of data, vector and raster. Vector data comprise of point, line & curves where as raster data comprise of pixel etc.  

Answer (A)

Q.25  A common flowering shrub is

(A)  Tectona grandis (B)  Mimusops elengi (C)  Dalbergia sisso (D)  Ixora coccinea  

Common name: Teak, Sagun सगुन (Hindi), Chingsoo (Manipuri), Sagwan सागवान (Marathi), Saguna (Bengali), தேக்கு Tekku (Tamil) 
Botanical name: Tectona grandis    Family: Verbenaceae

A very popular timber tree, teak is native to India and Burma to Java. It is a deciduous tree attaining a very large size. However, in cities it might be seen on the roadside as a medium sized tree with large leaves. Teak is considered a good quality wood for furniture. Leaves of the tree are opposite, 30-60 cm long and 15-30 cm broad. The flowers come in large numbers in lax clusters at the end of branches. They are white and rather small – about 6 mm across. The fruit is about 15 mm across, spongy, enclosed in the persistent calyx. Flowers appear in monsoon, fruit ripens in winter. From November to January, the tree is leafless. 



Common name: Spanish cherry • Hindi: Maulsari मौलसरी • Urdu: Kirakuli किराकुली • Manipuri: বোকুল লৈ Bokul lei • Tamil: மகிழம்பூ Magizhamboo • Malayalam: Ilanni • Bengali: Bakul • Marathi: Bakuli •Konkani: Omval • Kannada: Ranjal • Gujarati: Barsoli 
Botanical name: Mimusops elengi    Family: Sapotaceae (Mahua family)

Spanish cherry is a lovely green small tree of the Indian subcontinent. With its small shiny, thick, narrow, pointed leaves, straight trunk and spreading branches, it is a prized oranamental specimen because it provides a dense shade and during the months from March to July fills the night air with the delicious heady aroma of its tiny cream colored flowers. Flowers are small, star-shaped, yellowish white in color, with a crown rising from the center. Oval leaves, wavy at margin, about 5-16 cm and 3-7 cm wide. In the morning the fragrant flowers which so graciously scented their surroundings with their deep, rich, fragrance during the evening hours, fall to the ground. People love to collect them as they retain their odor for many days after they fall. They are offered in temples and shrines throughout the country. Appears in Indian mythology as Vakula – said to put forth blossoms when sprinkled with nectar from the mouth of lovely women. Fruits are eaten fresh. 
Medicinal uses:  Various parts of the tree have medicinal properties. It is used in the treatment and maintenance of oral hygiene. Rinsing mouth with water solution made with bakul helps in strengthening the teeth. It also prevents bad breath and helps keep the gums healthy.



Common name: Indian rosewood, Shisham शीशम (Hindi), Sissu (Manipuri), Sitral (Bengali) 
Botanical name: Dalbergia sissoo    Family: Fabaceae (pea family)

Shisham is a medium to large deciduous tree, native to India, with a light crown which reproduces by seeds and suckers. It can grow up to a maximum of 25 m in height and 2 to 3 m in diameter, but is usually smaller. Trunks are often crooked when grown in the open. Leaves are leathery, alternate, pinnately compound and about 15 cm long. Flowers are whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 cm long and in dense clusters 5-10 cm in length. Pods are oblong, flat, thin, strap-like 4-8 cm long, 1 cm wide, and light brown. They contain 1-5 flat bean-shaped seeds 8-10 mm long. They have a long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers. It is primarily found growing along river banks below 900 m elevation, but can range naturally up to 1300 m. Shisham is best known internationally as a premier timber species of the rosewood genus. However, Shisham is also an important fuel wood, shade, and shelter. With its multiple products, tolerance of light frosts and long dry seasons, this species deserves greater consideration for tree farming, reforestation and agro forestry applications. After teak, it is the most important cultivated timber tree in India, planted on roadsides, and as a shade tree for tea plantations. 
Medicinal uses:  Decoction of leaves is useful in gonorrhoea. Root is astringent. Wood is alterative, useful in leprosy, boils, eruptions and to allay vomiting. 

Dalbergia sissoo is best known internationally as a premier timber species of the rosewood genus. However, sissoo is also an important fuelwood, shade, shelter and fodder tree. With its multiple products, tolerance of light frosts and long dry seasons, this species deserves greater consideration for agroforestry applications



Common name: Ixora, Jungle geranium, Rugmini रुग्मिनी (Hindi), Vedchi (Tamil), Rangan (Bengali), Chethi (Malayalam) 
Botanical name: Ixora coccinea    Family: Rubiaceae (coffee family)

Related to the gardenia and coffee plants, Ixora is said to be native to Asia and whose name derives from an Indian deity. There are about 400 species spread from Africa to India to Southern Asia. They differ in leaf size, plant height, flower size and flower color. This plant which blooms throughout the year is easy to grow. The flowers are found in a wide range of colours. Plants are of two types- large; with height around 1 meter and dwarf or miniature plants. Miniature ones have small leaves and are bushy. Ixora flowers last well when picked and put into a vase with water, making an attractive home arrangement. Ixora flower has traditionally been associated with enhanced sexuality and the re-kindling of passion. 

Answer (D)

 Q.26  The correct arrangement of the height of towers given below in descending order is  

  1. Burj Khalifa, Dubai
  2. Petronas Tower, Kuala Lumpur
  3. Taipei 101, Taiwan
  4. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong

(A)  P, Q, R, S (B)  P, Q, S, R 

(C)  P, R, S, Q (D)  P, R, Q, S  


# Building City Floors Height Year
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai 163 828 m 2010
2 Makkah Clock Royal Tower [Abraj Al Bait] Makkah 120 601 m 2012
3 One World Trade Center [New World Trade Center] New York City 104 541 m 2013
4 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 509 m 2004
5 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai 101 492 m 2008
6 International Commerce Centre [Union Square] Hong Kong 118 484 m 2010
7 Petronas Tower 1 [Petronas Towers] Kuala Lumpur 88 452 m 1998
8 Petronas Tower 2 [Petronas Towers] Kuala Lumpur 88 452 m 1998
9 Zifeng Tower Nanjing 66 450 m 2010
10 Willis Tower Chicago 108 442 m 1974


Burj Khalifa

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural system buttressed core

Structural material steel concrete

Foundation system pile foundation

Facade material stainless steel

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color light gray

Architectural style modernism

Roof System tapered roof with spire

Main usage residential, hotel, commercial office, restaurant

    • Burj Dubai /Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure in the world, surpassing the KVLY-TV Tower in North Dakota as well asWarszawa Radio Mast, the previous tallest structure ever built.
    • The Burj Dubai had its name officially changed to Burj Khalifa during its grand opening in honor of the president of the U.A.E. H.H. Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan.
    • Engineers working on the design considered installing triple-decker elevators, which would have been the first in the world. In fact, the realized building uses double-decker elevators.
    • The condensation water collected from the A/C system equals to 20 Olympic-sized swimming pools per year and in turn, used for landscaping.
    • Over 330,000 cubic meters of concrete and 31,400 metric tonnes of steel rebar was used at the completion of the tower.
    • The tower is situated on a man-made lake which is designed to wrap around the tower and to provide dramatic views of it.
    • The top of the building contains a public observation deck and a private club above that.
    • Burj Dubai features sky lobbies on levels 43, 76 and 123. These spaces offer fitness and spa facilities. The lobbies on levels 43 and 76 each have a swimming pool and a recreational room for receptions and other gatherings.
    • This is the first world’s tallest building since prehistoric times to include residential space.
    • The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s extreme summer temperatures.
    • The exterior cladding is of reflective glazing with aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins of stainless steel.
    • A total of 45,000 cubic metres of concrete are used in the foundations with a weight in excess of 110,000 tonnes.
    • The building sits on a concrete and steel podium with 192 piles descending to a depth of more than 50 metres (164 feet).
    • The building was rotated 120 degrees to allow for less stress from the prevailing winds.
    • An observation deck will occupy the 124th floor.
    • The highest residential floor will be level 109.
    • “Burj” is Arabic for “Tower”.
    • The design by Skidmore Owings & Merrill replaces a plan to reuse the design for Grollo Tower, which was proposed in Melbourne a few years earlier.
    • Burj Dubai became the world’s tallest high-rise building on July 24, 2007, and the world’s tallest self-supporting structure on September 12, 2007.
    • Designed by Adrian D. Smith, FAIA, RIBA Design Partner at Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP.
    • Although the building’s shape resembles the bundled tube concept of the Willis Tower, it is structurally very different and is technically not a tube structure.
    • A subtle reference to the onion domes of Islamic architecture can be found in the building’s silhouette when looking up at the lobes from near the base.
    • The triple-lobed footprint of the building is based on an abstracted desert flower native to the region.


  • The maximum elevator speed is 600 m/min.


Makkah Clock Royal Tower

Alternative name Abraj Al Bait Towers, King Abdul Aziz Endowment Tower, Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, Tower H

Architectural style postmodern

Main usage :hotel, residential, shopping center

  • The front is decorated with a glass mosaic.
  •       Clock(s) displayed on the outside

Height (tip) 601.00 m

Height (architectural) 601.00 m

Height (observation floor) 558.70 m

Floors (above ground) 120

Floors (below ground) 3

Construction start 2004

Construction end 2012

Elevators 94

Escalators 16



One World Trade Center

Alternative name 1 World Trade Center, Tower One, Freedom Tower

Building type skyscraper

Building status under construction [topped out]

Structural material composite structure

Facade material glass

Facade system curtain wall

Architectural style modernism

Usage commercial office, mercantile, restaurant

    • The cubic base gives way to an octagonal plan at center whilst the glass parapet is square in plan and rotated 45 degrees from the base. The mid section’s octagonal plan is achieved by facade planes which are comprised of eight alternately inverted isosceles triangles with bevelled edges.
    • An 80 ft (24.3 m) high public lobby topped by a succession of mechanical floors rises from the plaza; in conjunction, these constitute the building’s blast-resistant base which is 200 ft (61 m) tall.
    • The tower’s structure is organized around a strong, redundant steel moment frame which consists of columns and beams linked by a combination of bolting and welding and resists lateral loads through the bending of the frame’s elements.
    • Rising above the base are 69 office floors which reach a height of 1,120 ft (341.3 m); this is further surmounted by mechanical floors (two of which are occupied by the Metropolitan Television Alliance), restaurants and observation decks at 1,362 ft (415 m) and 1,368 ft (417 m).
    • The base will be concrete, clad in over 2,000 pieces of prismatic glass.
    • The tower’s footprint is equal to that of each of the original Twin Towers.
    • The height of the observation decks match the heights of the original World Trade Center’s Twin Towers.
    • The final height of 1,776 ft (541 m) is reached by a cable-supported antenna which rises from a circular support ring and recalls the torch held aloft by the Statue of Liberty.
    • The building has an emergency stairway dedicated to firefighters.
    • For security reasons, the building is set back approximately 90 ft (27.4 m) from West Street.
    • The tower has extra strong fireproofing whilst the air supply system incorporates chemical and biological filters; emergency stairs are extra-wide and pressurized.
    • The tower’s structure allows for interior spans which are column-free.
    • In conjunction with a concrete-core shear wall, the moment frame endows great rigidity and redundancy to the tower’s overall structure.
    • The tower is designed to have a high degree of environmental sustainability.
    • Each floor has a refuge area whilst enhanced elevators are housed in a protected central building core which serves all of the tower’s floors.
    • A three-foot thick core houses One World Trade Center’s life-safety systems (elevators, risers, communications, stairs and sprinklers); the advanced life safety systems exceed that required by the New York City Building Code.
    • Foundation work started in July 2006.
    • The 408-feet tall decorative spire will encase an antenna with a lighting system to make it into a beacon.
    • Ground for actual construction (different from the cornerstone placing) was broken on April 27, 2006.
    • Freedom Tower’s cornerstone was placed during a ceremonial groundbreaking on July 4, 2004.
    • One World Trade Center has become the highest building in New York City by April 30, 2012.
  • The maximum elevator speed will be 540 m/min.


Taipei 101


Alternative name Taipei Financial Center, 臺北101

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural system core plus outrigger

Structural material composite structure

Facade material glass

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color green

Architectural style oriental revivalism

usage commercial office, restaurant, parking, shopping center, club house

    • The 89th floor holds an indoor observation area, and an outdoor observation deck is located on the 91st floor.
    • This was the first world’s tallest building completed in the 21st century. The next will most likely be Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates.
    • The outdoor observation deck is the highest in the world. It is expected to be surpassed by the outdoor deck in theShanghai World Financial Center.
    • Taipei 101 holds the world record in three of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat’s height categories: tallest to the structural top, tallest to the roof, and highest occupied floor.
    • Inside the base of the tower is the large Taipei 101 Mall, which opened before the tower on November 13th, 2003.
    • Exterior construction elevators and the construction elevator shaft were fully disassembled in late February of 2004.
    • Each elevator is designed with an aerodynamic body, pressurization and emergency braking systems, and the world’s first triple-stage anti-overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is over $US 2 million.
    • Most aspects of the design, layout and planning were reviewed and approved by a Feng Shui master.
    • The tower’s design specifications are based on the number “8”, a lucky number in traditional Chinese culture; it features 8 upward-flaring sections, and is supported by 8 supercolumns. The Jin Mao Tower in Shanghai also employs this numerology in its design.
    • The design is inspired by traditional Chinese architecture, with a shape resembling a pagoda. The sectioned tower is also inspired by the bamboo plant, which is a model of strength, resilience, and elegance.
    • The main damper is visible from the restaurant and bar which encircles the space around the ball.
    • The Taiwan Stock Exchange rents 7 floors in the building.
    • Taipei 101 was the world’s first skyscraper to break the half-kilometer mark in height.
    • The lift brakes are ceramic rather than steel (as found in high-performance cars) for greater efficiency.
    • At the time of construction, the building held the record for the greatest height to which concrete had been pumped.
    • The tower’s spire contains two, 4.5-tonne tuned mass dampers to reduce wind-induced fatigue.
    • Contained within is a circular 660-tonne tuned mass damper to counter seismic and wind-induced movement. It is constructed from 41 steel plates, is suspended from eight steel cables, rests on eight viscous dampers and can move five feet laterally in any direction. It is the largest and heaviest of its type in the world.
    • This is one of the few buildings in the world equipped with double-deck elevators.
    • Before the spire was installed there was a separate topping-out ceremony on July 1st, 2003 for completion to the roof level. The president of Taiwan and the mayor of Taipei participated in the event.
    • The highest section of the spire was installed on 9 October 2003. At the official ceremony on 17 October, Taipei’s mayor Ma Ying-Jeou fastened a golden bolt to signify the official topping-out.
    • Taipei 101 is currently the second tallest building in the world.
  • The elevators are the fastest in the world, rising at 1010 meters per minute (60.48 km/hour) and descending at 610 m/min (36.6 km/hour). The top speeds are 34 percent faster than the previous world’s fastest elevators in Yokohama Landmark Tower.


Shanghai World Financial Center

Alternative name Shanghai Global Financial Center

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural material composite structure

Facade material glass

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color light blue

Architectural style postmodern

Roof System bridged top

usage commercial office, hotel, museum, shopping center, mercantile, restaurant, shop(s)

  • The circular aperture at the top of the original design represented heaven, and would have served to reduce wind load on the building.
  • Changes to the design resulted in extra costs of more than $200 million USD due to the sophistication of designs which includes structural system re-design, foundation re-design and increased safety features taken after September 11th 2001.
  • Located near the Jin Mao Tower in the financial district of Shanghai.
  • Due to the design change of the top opening from a circle to a trapezoid, the tram-car system that would travel vertically inside the big circle is cancelled.
  • The Consortium invested more than US$850 million for the project.
  • The design of the opening near the top of the tower has changed in mid-October, 2005; from a circular to a rectangular opening. Architect and developer claim that it is cheaper and easier to implement the new design.
  • A widespread rumor in the world news media said the tower will surpass Taipei 101 as the world’s tallest building at completion, but is not true.
  • The foundation stone was laid on August 27, 1997, but a fund shortage on the Japanese side caused by Asian financial crisis halted the project, and nothing had since been done to the projected structure.
  • The consortium funding the project is composed of more than 36 international companies, mainly banking corporations, insurance companies and developers from Japan.
  • The tallest building in the People’s Republic of China, replacing Jin Mao Tower.
  • The observation bridge will be the highest outdoor observation deck in the world.
  • The height of this building has changed from its original plan – 94 stories at 460m to the current plan – 101 stories at 492m.
  • Construction finally resumed on February 13th, 2003.
  • Not implemented within two years, the project should have been canceled according to relevant regulations. However, because it is a project of huge investment and there have been no other suitable investors, the building remained, and in four years would finally rise up in Shanghai.
  • Glass and metal were covered on simple geometric bodies to create mysterious sight effects.
  • A 6-star hotel will be located near the top of the building, which will be the second highest hotel in the world after the one in International Commerce Centre.
  • The maximum elevator speed is 600 m/min.


  • Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates
  • East China Architectural Design & Research Institute Co. Ltd.

Height (tip) 494.33 m

Height (architectural) 492.00 m

Floors (above ground) 101

Floors (below ground) 3

Construction start 1997

Construction end 2008

Floor-to-floor-height 4.20 m

Elevators 31

Escalators 33

Parking places 1,100


International Commerce Centre


Alternative name ICC, Union Square Phase 7, Mass Transit Railway Tower, Kowloon Station Phase 7, MTR Tower, Union Square Package 7, Kowloon Station Package 7

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural material concrete, composite structure

Facade material glass

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color light blue

Architectural style modernism

usage hotel, commercial office, mercantile, parking

  • The final design of this tower was made in 2001 after more than four design proposal changes.
  • The original World’s Tallest design (574m with a pyramidal top) was changed, and the new design is by KPF.
  • This tower will form a “gateway” for Victoria Harbour withTwo International Finance Centre at the opposite side of the harbour.
  • Will become the tallest building in Hong Kong, surpassingTwo International Finance Centre by some 60 meters.
  • A 7-star Ritz-Carlton hotel with 300 rooms will be located near the top portion of the tower on 13 floors. It will also include convention and conference facilities.
  • The 7-star hotel will be the highest elevated hotel in the world, surpassing the one in Jin Mao Tower.

Design Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates

Associate Architect: Wong & Ouyang (HK) Limited

Height (tip) 484.00 m

Height (architectural) 484.00 m

Floors (above ground) 118

Floors (below ground) 4

Construction start 2002

Construction end 2010

Floor-to-ceiling height 3.15 m

Elevators 83

Escalators 41


Petronas Tower

Alternative name Menara Petronas

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural material steel, concrete

Foundation system mat foundation

Facade material aluminum, stainless steel

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color gray

Architectural style postmodern

Roof System tapered roof with spire

usage  commercial office

  • The architectural and engineering team was chosen on the basis of its experience with the Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle, a world’s-tallest proposal from Chicago with a narrow concrete structure that was very similar to the Petronas design.
  • From 1996 to 2003 this tower shared the world’s tallest building title with Petronas Tower 2.
  • The two towers have a total of 76 lifts, including 29 double-decker high speed passenger lifts in each tower. Each double-decker elevator can carry 26 persons.
  • The security system includes a card access and alarm monitoring system, closed circuit television, a voice intercom, and a photo ID system.
  • The total construction costs for the two Petronas Twin Towers amount to $1,600,000,000.

Height (tip) 451.90 m

Height (architectural) 451.90 m

Floors (above ground) 88

Floors (below ground) 5

Construction start 1992

Construction end 1998

Floor-to-floor-height 4.00 m

Floor-to-ceiling height 2.64 m

Elevators 39

Escalators 10

Parking places 5,400



Zifeng Tower


Alternative name Nanjing Greenland Square Zifeng Tower, 绿地广场•紫峰大厦, Nanjing Greenland Financial Center

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural material composite structure

Facade material glass

Facade system curtain wall

usage commercial office, hotel, mercantile

Architect: Skidmore, Owings And Merrill LLP

Height (tip) 450.00 m

Height (architectural) 450.00 m

Floors (above ground) 66

Floors (below ground) 5

Construction start 2005

Construction end January 2010


Willis Tower


Alternative name Sears Tower

Building type skyscraper

Building status existing [completed]

Structural system bundled tube

Structural material steel

Foundation system caisson foundation

Facade material aluminum

Facade system curtain wall

Facade color black

Architectural style international style

Roof System flat roof with 1 box

usage commercial office, parking, restaurant, shop(s), service branch(es)

  • Double-decker express elevators take passengers from the first two floors to skylobbies at floors 33/34 and 66/67.
  • This has been the tallest building in Chicago since 1974. For a timeline of Chicago’s tallest building through history, start with Holy Name Cathedral.
  • The floor count is usually given as 110; however this figure includes the elevator box and its roof, features not normally counted as floors.
  • The structure is formed from 9 bundled square tubes, each 75 feet wide with no columns between the core and perimeter. Two of the tubes are 50 floors high, two are 66 floors, three are 90, and two are 108.
  • The lobby contains the moving sculpture “The Universe” by Alexander Calder.
  • The height was listed in many sources for years as 1,454 feet. This is the result of misprinted data which was copied by several sources until it was corrected by the engineers in the middle 1990s.
  • The two antennae on the roof give the tower the highest “tip height” of any skyscraper in the world.
  • Until Taipei 101 was topped out in 2004, the Sears Tower held title to the world’s highest roof and highest occupied floor.
  • On 2 July 2009, a viewing ledge built of three 1.3-centimeter thick glass layers, and suspended from the 103rd floor, opened to the public.
  • The observatory elevators are among the world’s fastest at 1600 feet per minute.
  • World’s tallest building from 1974 – 1996; surpassed byPetronas Tower 1 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • The tower has a pressure lock (like an airlock) at the freight entrance to combat the ‘stack effect’ generated by the differential in air pressure caused by cold air meeting warm air in the building.
  • The tower’s sway has been known to induce motion sickness in people working at the top.
  • In 2000, four high-definition television antennas were lifted to the roof by helicopter.
  • 2.5 million cubic feet of concrete were used during construction.
  • The building’s facade has been climbed twice: by Dan Goodwin in 1981 and by Alain Robert in 1999.
  • Before the tower was developed, its site was split in half byWest Quincy Street. Sears paid the city of Chicago $2.7 million for the street segment.
  • The Skydeck occupies the 103rd floor, the highest non-mechanical floor in the building. It has its own entrance on Jackson Boulevard, and attracts approximately 1.5 million visitors per year.
  • Sears executives chose to build a single tall headquarters building over an alternative proposal for twin towers at half the existing tower’s height.
  • Sears Roebuck & Co. originally occupied the lower half of its namesake tower. In 1995 the company moved to a low-rise complex in the northwest Chicago suburb of Hoffman Estates.
  • A renovation in the 1980s added a barrel-vaulted entrance pavilion to the west side and a small cut-away atrium inside the east entrance.
  • This is not the original Sears Tower; the previous headquarters of Sears Roebuck was a vast building on Chicago’s West Side that included the Sears Merchandise Building Tower.
  • Sears Tower was topped out on May 3, 1973, surpassingOne World Trade Center as the world’s tallest building.
  • The lobby floor is decorated with metal tiles in a stylized design based on the bundled tube structure.
  • Twenty-eight acres of black anodized aluminum panels and approximately 16,100 bronze-tinted windows form the tower’s facade.

 Architect: Skidmore, Owings And Merrill LLP

Height (tip) 527.00 m

Height (architectural) 442.14 m

Length 68.58 m

Width 68.58 m

Floors (above ground) 108

Floors (below ground) 4

Construction start 1970

Construction end 1974

Floor-to-floor-height 3.92 m

Elevators 104


Answer (D)

Q.27  Match the buildings in Group I with their corresponding architects in Group II

       Group I

  1. Khalsa Heritage Complex, Anandpur Sahib
  2. Lisbon Ismaili Centre, Lisbon
  3. Neuroscience Centre, Cambridge, USA
  4. National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai                                                           


       Group II

  1. Philip Johnson
  2. Charles Correa
  3. Raj Rewal
  4. B. V. Doshi
  5. Moshe Safdie

(A)  P-2, Q-5, R-1, S-4 (B)  P-5, Q-3, R-2, S-1

(C)  P-4, Q-2, R-1, S-3 (D)  P-5, Q-2, R-1, S-4    


International practice safdie architects has completed the ‘khalsa heritage center’ located in anandpur sahib, punjab, india. 
slated to officially open this fall, the new museum complex is dedicated to the sikh people, commemorating 500 years of 
history and the 300th anniversary of khalsa, scriptures written by the notable and final guru, gobind singh. overlooking the 
adjacent town, the 75 acre site is divided by a ravine and interconnected with a pedestrian bridge. 

the western half contains an entry piazza, auditorium, extensive library and interchangeable exhibition spaces. on the eastern 
half of the site, galleries with permanent displays are housed within a series of five concave peaked roofs prefacing the dramatic 
himalayan mountains. each gallery within the cluster represents one of the five virtues symbolic of the sikh faith. arcades of cast 
in place concrete columns support the exterior faced with sand colored gwalior stone. the stainless steel roof acquires qualities 
of the changing atmospheric conditions while water is directed through the ravine introducing a reflective water garden.


 Architect: Raj Rewal


Answer (B)

Q.28  The term ‘Working head’ in context of water supply system means 

(A)  Height of a body of water falling freely under the force of gravity to acquire a certain velocity

(B)  Rate of increase of velocity with respect to distance normal to the direction of flow

(C)  Total head with deduction for velocity head or losses

(D)  Difference between supply and delivery water levels  

Note: Head is measured in meters. h is the pressure head in ρgh.


Q.29  In  a  theoretical  traffic  flow relationship, as  shown  in  the figure given below,

the  slope  of  line  OF  joining  point  F on the curve and the origin O represents

(A)  Corresponding space mean speed (B)  Speed at maximum flow

 (C)  Travel time at corresponding density (D)  Average headway at corresponding flow  

Answer (A)

Q.30  Match the CAD terms in Group I with their corresponding functions in Group II

    Group I

  1. Tiled viewport
  2. UCS
  3. DXF 
  4. Extrude   

     Group II

  1. Boolean operator 
  2. Solid model
  3. Coordinate system 
  4. Drawing interchange format
  5. Model space

(A)  P-4, Q-3, R-2, S-1 (B)  P-2, Q-5, R-2, S-1

(C)  P-5, Q-3, R-4, S-2 (D)  P-3, Q-5, R-4, S-2   Answer (C)

 Q.30  Match the CAD terms in Group I with their corresponding functions in Group II

    Group I

  1. Tiled viewport
  2. UCS
  3. DXF 
  4. Extrude   

     Group II

  1. Boolean operator 
  2. Solid model
  3. Coordinate system 
  4. Drawing interchange format
  5. Model space

(A)  P-4, Q-3, R-2, S-1 (B)  P-2, Q-5, R-2, S-1

(C)  P-5, Q-3, R-4, S-2 (D)  P-3, Q-5, R-4, S-2  

 A viewport in AutoCAD


The EXTRUDE command allows you to create a solid object from circles, polygons, and objects, created from or converted to Polylines, that have “closed” paths.

AutoCAD started life as a two-dimensional drafting program. It was not designed for 3D. Almost all the AutoCAD drawing and edit commands can only work in 2D (the exceptions being commands like 3DPOLY and 3DFACE). When Autodesk, the makers of AutoCAD incorporated 3D into the program they needed some method for doing so without completely rewriting the software. The method they decided upon has become known as UCS, User Co-ordinate Systems.


Answer (C)

Q.31  Match the historic periods in Group I with their corresponding examples of towns in Group II

     Group I      Group II

  1. Egyptian  1.  Miletus 
  2. Greek  2.  Montpazier 
  3. Medieval  3.  Kahun 
  4. Renaissance  4.  Versailles 
  5. Timgad 

(A)  P-3, Q-1, R-2, S-4 (B)  P-3, Q-1, R-4, S-5

(C)  P-4, Q-1, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-5, Q-1, R-3, S-2    


Kahun, ancient Egyptian town, its site lying in modern Al-Fayyūm muḥāfaẓah (governorate). It was erected for the overseers and workmen employed in constructing the nearby pyramid of Al-Lāhūn, built by Sesostris II (reigned 1844–37 bce), and it was abandoned when the pyramid was completed. Excavated by the English archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie (1888–90), it revealed a crisscross of streets laid out in a regular pattern, with houses built of mud brick having beamed, flat mud roofs, open courts and porticoes, and the earliest examples of a supporting wooden column, fluted and on a raised base. Cretan polychrome Kamáres ware and Cypriot black ware were also found at the site.



Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. Its ruins are located near the modern town of Balat in Aydin Province, Turkey. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus was considered the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities.[


Monpazier is a villege in southwest France. The village is a member of the Les Plus Beaux Villages de France(“The most beautiful villages of France”) association. Monpazier was built in 13th century.


Answer (A)

Q.32  Match the components of an Indian urban land use map in Group I with their corresponding colour

codes as per UDPFI guidelines in Group II

    Group I

  1. Public / Semipublic 
  2. Industry 
  3. Transportation 
  4. Commercial   

     Group II

  1. Violet 
  2. Grey 
  3. Red 
  4. Blue
  5. Yellow

(A)  P-1, Q-3, R-2, S-5 (B)  P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-4

(C)  P-3, Q-4, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-3, Q-1, R-2, S-4   Answer (D)

Q.33  Match the books in Group I with their corresponding authors in Group II

     Group I

  1. Design of Cities 
  2. On the Cultural Origin of Settlements 
  3. Urbanization and National Development 
  4. Planning Theory

    Group II

  1. Amos Rapoport 
  2. Leo Jacobson and Ved Prakash
  3. Edmond Bacon
  4. Christopher Alexander
  5. Andreas Faludi 

(A)  P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-5 (B)  P-3, Q-1, R-2, S-5

(C)  P-4, Q-3, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2   Answer (B)

Q.34  Match the temples in Group I with their corresponding historical periods in Group II

     Group I

  1. Vaikuntha Perumal Temple, Kancheepuram 
  2. Meenakshi Temple, Madurai
  3. Durga Temple, Aihole 
  4. Brihadeshwara Temple, Thanjavur

     Group II

  1. Vijaynagara 
  2. Chalukya
  3. Chola
  4. Pandya
  5. Pallava

(A)  P-2, Q-3, R-5, S-1 (B)  P-5, Q-1, R-4, S-3

(C)  P-3, Q-5, R-2, S-1 (D)  P-5, Q-4, R-2, S-3  


Durga Temple, Aihole


The Durga temple is an example of southern (Dravidian) architectural type, with a later northern type superstructure imposed upon it-an incongruity apparent from the fact that the superstructure is a square structure clumsily fitted over an apsidal cella. The temple stands on a high moulded upapitha (sub-base), apsidal on plan and carrying a peripheral row of columns on its edge that surround the moulded adhishthana and walls of an apsidal vimana and its front mandapa. Thus the colonnade forms a covered circumambulatory with a sloping roof. The open mandapa is continued forward on a base of smaller width. The peripheral pillars of the front mandapa and those at the forward end of the circumambulatory have large statuary on them. The adhishthana inside is again apsidal, moulded with all the components, and carries the apsidal wall enclosing the inner apsidal wall of the cella or garbha-griha and a closed maha-mandapa in front of it, with two linear rows of four columns in each row that divide it into a central nave and lateral aisles. 




The enormous temple complex is dedicated to Shiva, known here as Sundareshvara and his consort Parvati or Meenakshi. The original temple was built by Kulasekara Pandya, but the entire credit for making the temple as splendid as it is today goes to the Nayaks. The Nayaks ruled Madurai from the 16th to the 18th century and left a majestic imprint of their rule in the Meenakshi – Sundareswarar Temple.

The temple complex is within a high-walled enclosure, at the core of which are the two sanctums for meenakshi and Sundareshwara, surrounded by a number of smaller shrines and grand pillared halls. Especially impressive are the 12 gopuras. Their soaring towers rise from solid granite bases, and are covered with stucco figures of dieties, mythical animals and monsters painted in vivid colours.

Temple Towers

There are 12 temple towers(Gopurams). The outer towers are the landmarks of Madurai.


Pyramidal gates(gopuras) rise to a height of more than 50m. These towering gateways indicate the entrance to the temple complex at the four cardinal points, while lesser gopuras lead to the sanctums of the main dieties.

Stucco Work

The figures of dieties on the tower are repaired, repainted and ritually reconsecrated every 12 years.

Ashta Shakthi Mandapam   

A visitor who enters the temple through the eastern gateway, first enters this Mandapam(Hall). It was built by Thirumalai Nayakar’s wives Rudrapathi Ammal and Tholimamai. In this hall food was once  distributed to the devotees who came from far off places. Next to this hall is the Meenakshi Nayaka Mandapa, a spacious columned hall used for shops and stores. This hall has a votive lamp-holder with 1,008 lamps, which are lit on festive occasions and present a spectacular sight. The sculptures on the pillars here relate some of Lord Shiva’s Thiruvilayadals (miracles) and also the story of  Meenakshi’s birth and her life as the princess of Madurai.

The story descripted on the stones is as follows:

Malayadwaja Pandya, a king of Madurai , was childless for a long time. He performed a number of yagnas (sacrifices made before a sacred fire) because he wanted an heir to his throne. On one occasion, a three-year-old girl came out of the fire and Malayadwaja adopted her. But the girl had three breasts and this worried Malayadwaja. However, a divine voice assured him that the third breast would disappear as soon as she met her consort. The girl grew into a brave and beautiful princess. she won many battles, but eventually lost her heart to Lord Shiva, when she met him on the battle-field in Kailas. As soon as she saw him, her third breast disappeared and she recognized her divine consort, for the princess was none other than Shiva’s wife, Parvathi. After ruling over the Pandya kingdom for a while, they settled in the Madurai temple as Meenakshi and Sundareswarar.

The Thousand Pillar Mandapam   

It is the ‘wonder of the palace’. Actually the number of  pillars count to 985 beautifully decorated columns. Each pillar is sculptured and is a monument of the Dravidan sculpture. There is a Temple Art Museum in this 1000 pillars hall where you can see icons, photographs, drawings, etc., exhibiting the 1200 years old history. There are so many other smaller and bigger mandapams in the temple.

Just outside this mandapam ,towards the west, are the Musical Pillars. Each pillar when stuck, produces a different musical note. The kalyana mandapa, to the south of the pillared hall, is where the marriage of Shiva and Parvati is celebrated every year during the Chitirai Festival in mid- April.

Vasantha Mandapam   

This mandapam was built by Thirumalai Nayakkar. Vasanthosavam – the  Spring festival-is celebrated in this mandapam in Vaikasi (April/May). Its pillars contain elaborate sculptures of Shiva, Meenakshi, scenes from their wedding as well as the figures of ten of the Nayak Kings and their consorts. This is also called Pudhu Mandapam.



The Peruvudaiyar Kovil, also known as Brihadeeswara TempleRajaRajeswara Temple and Rajarajeswaram, at Thanjavur in the Indian state ofTamil Nadu, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and an art of the work achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. The temple is part of the UNESCOWorld Heritage Site “Great Living Chola Temples”.

This temple is one of India’s most prized architectural sites. The temple stands amidst fortified walls that were probably added in the 16th century. Thevimana or (temple tower) is 216 ft (66 m) high and is among the tallest of its kind in the world. The Kumbam (Kalasha or Chikharam) (apex or the bulbous structure on the top) of the temple is carved out of a single stone.

There is a big statue of Nandi (sacred bull), carved out of a single rock, at the entrance measuring about 16 feet long and 13 feet high.

The entire temple structure is made out of granite, the nearest sources of which are close to Tiruchchirapalli, about 60 km to the west of Thanjavur, where the temple is.



Vaikuntha Perumal Temple, Kanchipuram

The Vaikuntha Perumal temple was built sometime during the seventh century by the Pallava king Nandivarman. The temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu and the main shrine has three distinct levels. The main shrine houses finely carved sculptures of Lord Vishnu. These sculptures are huge in size and show Vishnu in different standing, sitting and reclining positions.


Answer (D)

Q.35  Match the theories in Group I with their corresponding propagators in Group II

       Group I         Group II

  1. Choice theory of planning  1.  Paul Davidoff and T.A. Reiner
  2. Connurbation  2.  Patrick Geddes
  3. Classical theory of land use 3.  Homer Hoyt
  4. Central place theory 4.  Richard L. Meier 
  5. Walter Christaller

(A)  P-2, Q-3, R-5, S-1 (B)  P-1, Q-2, R-4, S-5

(C)  P-4, Q-3, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-5, Q-4, R-3, S-2  


conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urban agglomeration, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.

The term “conurbation” was coined as a neologism in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the (then) new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, and gave as examples “Midlandton” in England, the Ruhrin Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands, New York-Boston in the United States,[2] the Greater Tokyo Area and Taiheiyō Belt in Japan and NCR of Delhi in India.

A conurbation can be confused with a metropolitan area. As the term is used in North America, a metropolitan area can be defined by the Census Bureau or it may consist of a central city and its suburbs, while a conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization.Internationally, the term “urban agglomeration” is often used to convey a similar meaning to “conurbation”.A conurbation should also be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed.


Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in an urban system. The theory was created by the German geographer Walter Christaller, who asserted that settlements simply functioned as ‘central places’ providing services to surrounding areas

Answer (all)

 Q.36  Match the buildings in Group I with their corresponding structural feature in Group II

      Group I

  1. Yokohama Port Terminal, Yokohama
  2. Stanstead Airport, London
  3. TWA Terminal, New York
  4. Montreal Biosphere, Montreal 

      Group II

  1. Geodesic Dome
  2. Shell Structure
  3. Space Frame
  4. Folded Steel Plate Structure
  5. Pneumatic Structure 

(A)  P-4, Q-3, R-2, S-1 (B)  P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-4

(C)  P-4, Q-3, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-5, Q-3, R-4, S-2  




This design for the Yokohama International Port Terminal interweaves the public and passenger functions of the building into an organic whole that has the richness and complexity of a large garden or a small city. The different parts of the building are distributed along the length of the site, on a number of levels. The adjacency and overlapping of these parts result in rich visual relationships and complex routes. An enclosing wall and large openings to the sky serve to intensify the dense pattern of the building’s programme, creating a loose structure of difference, which resembles that of a garden or a natural topography. The terminal building becomes a kind of walled garden, where the enclosing perimeter occludes views of the harbour and the Minato district of Yokohama. The cosmic scale of the sky and of Tokyo Bay is juxtaposed with an interior of sensual and gregarious interaction. The concept of Niwaminato is interpreted through this contrast: a close and complex interior within the unified image of the exterior. Caruso St John Architects


Architectural masterpiece and symbol of Expo 67, the Biosphere is a unique and spectacular structure, located at Parc Jean-Drapeau in Montréal.

Its First Life

In 1967, the American government was contemplating its contribution to Montréal, Canada’s upcoming exposition, which would showcase countries from around the world. The U.S. hoped to make an impact of the exposition and hired famed architect, Richard Buckminster Fuller, to fashion the design for its building.

Fuller’s architectural skills resulted in the design of a huge geodesic dome that would quickly become one of the main attractions at the fair. Fuller was already known for his domes but this was, by far, his most elaborate and complicated work.

The United States Pavilion stood 200-feet-high (61m) and had a spherical diameter of 250 feet (76m). It was constructed as a frame of steel pipes enclosing some 1,900 molded acrylic panels. The dome used an elaborate system of retractable shading screens to control the heat inside and a computer adjusted the screens in accordance with the direction of the sun’s rays. The result was stunning!

Its Second Life

When the Expo was complete, instead of dismantling the building, the U.S. donated it to the city of Montreal. For several years, it served as an exhibition area for plants and birds.

During structural renovations in 1976, a fire occurred at the dome and the transparent outer skin was completely lost. Until 1990, access to the site was forbidden due to structural concerns.

That year, Environment Canada bought the structure at a cost of $17.5 million in hopes of building its Biosphere: an attraction/museum devoted to eco-action, showcasing, observing and studying water, and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River ecosystem.� Architect Eric Gauthier was selected to redesign the interior in keeping with Fuller�s original plans. It opened in 1995.

What’s Inside?

A visit to the Biosphere is a treat for all ages, especially kids who love hands-on interactive exhibits. The displays and movies highlight the importance of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River watershed and endeavor to educate visitors as to environmental concerns that plague the area.

Special programs for groups include a guided tour and the chance to participate in experiments, games, and other activities that showcase the area’s watershed.



TWA Flight Center (TWA Flight Center), was the original name for the Eero Saarinen design held at Idlewild Airport Terminal 5, later renamed John F. International Airport Kennedy.

Before starting the project, Saarinen made a deep study of the behavior of the USER within the airport, whether travelers, visitors or companions. It showed that the flow of travelers in their journeys, they are never in a straight line, detail taken into account by the architect when designing an environment shaped envelopes.

Saarinen was inspired by the Gothic vaults to house an area without columns that allows for various services. Although the structure appears to be a sculptural piece of concrete is reinforced inside by an invisible network of steel, a kind of “invisible steel hammock” that supports the roof. This is a Y-shaped column that becomes so plastic and other beams leisurely hold responsible for the four sections of the roof, while allowing, through its separation, the zenith passage of natural light and lighten the visual weight of the structure.

In subsequent models made to scale, this cover was changing its shape to adjust freely to an element capable of sustaining. The great structural concern was to avoid excessive thickness in the edge beam that would hold the cantilever. The form evolved from a single continuous shell, some shells fastened by large ribs, reaching the final form consists of four distinct arches, with a silhouette pointed out, forming a kind of four-pointed star. The edge beam was configured as a forward slope and the ridge that forms in the backfill water collection channels of the cover.

The continuous flow from one area to the other creates a space without limits, an architecture of fluidity. Columns, arches and sills are combined to form a single element.



Architect : Norman Foster, Foster + Partners

Major cantilever and structural clusters form the technological aesthetic!

Answer (A)



Q.37  Match the Five Year Plans listed under  Group I with their corresponding feature from Group II

Group I

  1. First Five Year Plan       
  2. Fourth  Five Year Plan        
  3. Seventh Five Year Plan    
  4. Tenth Five Year Plan                

Group II

  1. Formation of HUDCO
  2. Establishment of TCPO
  3. Introduction of  JNNURM
  4. Announcement of National Housing Policy
  5. Passing of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act

(A)  P-5,Q-2,R-4,S-3 (B)  P-2,Q-1,R-4,S-3

(C)  P-4,Q-1, R-2, S-5 (D)  P-1,Q-2,R-3,S-5  Answer (B)



Q.38  Match the landscape designers listed under  Group I with their appropriate contribution from Group II

       Group I

  1. Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown             
  2. Andre Le Notre             
  3. Joseph Paxton       
  4. Frederick Law Olmstead                             

      Group II

  1. The Well-tempered Garden
  2. Kew Garden
  3. Versailles Garden
  4. Crystal Palace
  5. Central Park

(A)  P-3,Q-1, R-4, S-2 (B)  P-5, Q-3, R-4, S-2

(C)  P-3,Q-1, R-2, S-5 (D)  P-2,Q-3, R-4, S-5  Answer (D)



Q.39  Match the organism type from Group I with the appropriate example from Group II

      Group I

  1. Autotroph 
  2. Heterotroph
  3. Chemotroph
  4. Saprophyte

       Group II

  1. Nitrifying Bacteria
  2. Grasshopper
  3. Grass
  4. Vulture
  5. Fungus

(A)  P-5, Q-4, R-1, S-2 (B)  P-2, Q-1, R-5, S-4

(C)  P-1, Q-2, R-4, S-5 (D)  P-3, Q-2, R-1, S-5  


Notes: An autotroph(“self-feeding”, from the Greek autos “self” and trophe “nourishing”) or “producer”. Example- plants.
A heterotroph is an organism that cannot fix carbon and usesorganic carbon for growth. This contrasts with autotrophs, such as plants and algae, which can use energy from sunlight (photoautotrophs) or inorganic compounds (lithoautotrophs).
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. These molecules can be organic (chemoorganotrophs) orinorganic (chemolithotrophs). The chemotroph designation is in contrast to phototrophs, which utilize solar energy. Chemotrophs can be either autotrophic orheterotrophic.
Saprotroph, a term used for organisms which obtain nutrients from dead organic matter.


Answer (D)



Q.40  Match the concepts in Group I with their corresponding authors in Group II

       Group I

  1. Proxemics Theory
  2. Serial Vision
  3. Urban Imageability
  4. Defensible Space

       Group II

  1. Gordon Cullen
  2. Edward T. Hall
  3. Oscar Newman
  4. Paul Zucker
  5. Kevin Lynch


(A)  P-2, Q-1, R-5, S-3 (B)  P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-4

(C)  P-4, Q-1, R-5, S-2 (D)  P-3, Q-5, R-2, S-1  Answer (A)


 Q.41  If the area coverage of one sprinkler is 20 m2, with a maximum and minimum spacing of 4.6 m and

1.8 m respectively, the minimum number of sprinklers required to be arranged in a regular

orthogonal grid to cover the area of a 15 m x 20 m room would be ____  


Notes: For minimum no. of sprinklers, the spacing between them should be maximum. Let us assume, shape of area coverage of the sprinkler is square. As area coverage of one sprinkler is 20 m2, so the side of the square = square root 20= 4.47 which also satisfies 1.8 < 4.47< 4.6


Answer (20)

 Q.42  If the slope of a hipped roof is 60 degrees and height of the roof is 3 m, span of the room, in m, would be _____  

Notes:Span of the room = 2 x (3/tan60) ………….{answer!

Answer (3.4 to 3.6)

 Q.43  Volume of coarse aggregate in m3 present in 1.0 m3 of   1 : 1.5 : 3  concrete mix made by volume

 batching is _______.    


Notes: 1:1.5:3, where 1 part of cement is to be mixed with 1.5 parts of sand and 3 parts of coarse aggregates. Water requirement for the mix would be less than 25 liters per bag of cement.


as 5.5 m3 of concrete mix has 3 m3 of coarse aggregate,

So, 1 m3 of concrete mix will have 3/5.5 m3 of coarse aggregate!

Answer (0.5 to 0.6)

Q.44  A tank of internal dimension 3 m x 5 m x 4 m (Length x Breadth x Height) has 200 mm thick brick

wall on all sides. Volume of brickwork in m3 

would be _______.


Notes: internal dimension 3 m x 5 m x 4 m , external dimension 3.2 m x 5.2 m x 6.3 m

So, required volume= (3.2 m x 5.2 m x 6.3 m) – (3 m x 5 m x 4 m) ………….{answer!

Answer (13 to 14)

Q.45  Flux emitted from a 1cd light source in all directions, in lumens, would be _______.

Notes: 4Π

Answer(12 to 13)

 Q.46  50 Hectare of residential sector has 65% buildable  area. The FAR of the buildable area is 1.5. 

Within the residential sector, 60% of dwelling units are of area 100 m2 each and 40% of the dwelling units are of area 80 m2 

each. The gross residential density, in dwelling units per Hectare, would be _______.

Notes: Let, N= total no. of dwelling units. FAR=1.5 given.

So, total buildable area= 50Hectare X 65% X 1.5 FAR = (50 X 0.65 X 1.5) Hectare=  (50 X 0.65 X 1.5 X 10000) m2

As per question, 0.6N X 100m2 + 0.4N X 80 m2 = total buildable area

So, 0.6N X 100m2 + 0.4N X 80 m2 = (50 X 0.65 X 1.5 X 10000) m2 …………{Find N}

The gross residential density, in dwelling units per Hectare= N/50=106 (answer)


Answer (105 to 107)

Q.47  In the given project network diagram, the total slack for job A in days would be  

Notes: For activity F to start, activities (B+C) & (A+E) must been finished. As activities (B+C) takes 6 days to finish to start the activity F. Activities (A+E) takes 5 days to finish to start the activity F. Which implies that activity A can be delayed by 1 day without affecting the start of activity F. The delay by one day is actually slack.

Answer (1)

Common Data for Questions 48 and 49:

The scale of a contour map is 1:10,000 and  the contour interval is 5 m. Distance  between two given points

on the map is 2 cm and the elevation difference between the two given points is 10 m.


Q.48  The actual distance between  the two given points in m would be 

(A)  2 (B)  20 (C)  200 (D)  2000  


Notes: 2cm in map = 2x20000cm in actual = 200m


10m is elevation difference (given)


Answer (C)


Q.49  The slope between two given points in percentage is 

(A)  5  (B)  10 (C)  15 (D)  20  

Notes: In 200m in plan, there is elevation change in 10m. So, in 100m in plan, the change in elevation will be 5m (answer).

Answer (A)

Common Data for Questions 50 and 51:

A point load of 3kN acts at mid-span of a 4 m long cantilever beam as shown in figure below.


Q.50  Shearing force at free end in kN is

(A)  0 (B)  3 (C)  6 (D)  12    

Notes: obviously 0 as there is no mass in the free end to produce any shear!

Answer (A)


Q.51  Bending moment at mid-span in kNm is

(A)  0 (B)  2 (C)  4 (D)  6    

Notes: M=Fl= (3kN) x (2m)= 6kNm

Answer (D)


 Statement for Linked Answer Questions 52 and 53:


Cost of a new building is Rs 10,00,000 and its scrap value after 50 years is Rs. 1,00,000. 

Using straight line method


Q.52  The annual depreciation of the building in Rs. would be

(A)  10,000 (B)  15,000 (C)  18,000 (D)  20,000    


Notes: annual depreciation= 18000, so after 10 years the value will be depreciated by 10×18000=180000

So, the book value= 1000000-180000=820000

Answer (C)


Q.53  The book value after 10 years in Rs. would be

(A)  1,80,000 (B)  3,60,000 (C)  6,00,000 (D)  8,20,000    


Notes: annual depreciation= 18000, so after 10 years the value will be depreciated by 10×18000=180000

So, the book value= 1000000-180000=820000

Answer (D)


Statement for Linked Answer Questions 54 and 55:


A room of size 100 m2 

is illuminated by 10 lamps of 40 W having a luminous efficacy of 50 lm/W.


Q.54  Total flux emitted by the lamps in lumens would be

 (A)  2,000 (B)  5,000 (C)  10,000 (D)  20,000  Answer (D)


Q.55  If utilization factor is 0.5, at a working height of 90 cm above the floor level, the illumination in lux would be

(A)  100  (B)  200 (C)  500 (D)  1000  Answer (A)


 Q.56  A number is as much greater than 75 as it is smaller than 117. The number is:

(A) 91 (B)  93 (C)  89 (D)  96    

Notes: start from the given options!

Answer (D)

 Q.57  The professor ordered to the students to go out of the class.

                 I                     II                     III                         IV

Which of the above underlined parts of the sentence is grammatically incorrect?

(A) I (B) II (C)  III (D)  IV   Answer (B)

 Q.58  Which of the following options is the closest in meaning to the word given below:


(A) Modern (B) Historic (C) Primitive  (D) Antique    Answer (C)

 Q.59  Friendship, no matter how _________it is, has its limitations.

(A) cordial 

(B) intimate

(C) secret

(D) pleasant    Answer (B)

 Q.60  Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the pair:

 Medicine: Health 

(A) Science: Experiment (B) Wealth: Peace

(C) Education: Knowledge (D) Money: Happiness     Answer (C)

 Q.61  X and Y are two positive real numbers such that 2X+Y≤ 6 and X+2Y≤8. For which of the

 following values of (X,Y) the function f(X,Y)=3X +6Y will give maximum value?

(A) (4/3, 10/3)

(B) (8/3, 20/3)

(C) (8/3, 10/3)

(D) (4/3, 20/3)    

Notes: for quick answer, put the values of X & Y one by one from the four given answers in 3X +6Y to give maximum value which must also satisfy  2X+Y 6 and X+2Y8.

Answer (A)

 Q.62 If |4X-7|=5 then the values of 2 |X| – |-X | is: 

(A)  2, 1/3 (B) 1/2, 3 (C)  3/2, 9 (D)  2/3, 9  


Notes: |4X-7|=5 => X= 3(when |4X-7|  is +ve) & X=1/2 (if |4X-7| is -ve)

When, X=3, value of 2 |X| – |-X | is 3

When X=1/2 value of 2 |X| – |-X | is 1/2

Answer (B)

 Q.63  Following table provides figures (in rupees) on annual expenditure of a firm for two years – 2010 and 2011. 

In 2011, which of the following two categories have registered increase by same percentage?


(A) Raw material and Salary & wages 

(B)  Salary & wages and Advertising

(C) Power & fuel and Advertising

(D) Raw material and Research & Development   Answer (D)

Q.64  A firm is selling its product at Rs. 60 per unit. The total cost of production is Rs. 100 and firm is

earning total profit of Rs. 500. Later, the total cost increased by 30%. By what percentage the price

should be increased to maintained the same profit level. 

(A) 5 (B) 10 (C)  15 (D)  30  

Notes: Initial selling price= 60 (10, cost of production + 50, profit)

Cost is increased by 30% => 10+3=13 cost of production

So, new selling price= 60+3=63 (to maintain same level of profit)

The required %= (63/60)x100=105 => 5%

Answer (A)

Q.65  Abhishek is elder to Savar. Savar is younger to Anshul.

 Which of the given conclusions is logically valid and is inferred from the above statements?  

(A) Abhishek is elder to Anshul

(B) Anshul is elder to Abhishek

(C) Abhishek and Anshul are of the same age

(D) No conclusion follows  Answer (D)


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